Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Badia, A.: ¬The information manifold : why computers cannot solve algorithmic bias and fake news.
Cambridge, UK : MIT Press, 2019. xvii, 334 S.
(History and foundations of information science)
Abstract: An argument that information exists at different levels of analysis-syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic-and an exploration of the implications. Although this is the Information Age, there is no universal agreement about what information really is. Different disciplines view information differently; engineers, computer scientists, economists, linguists, and philosophers all take varying and apparently disconnected approaches. In this book, Antonio Badia distinguishes four levels of analysis brought to bear on information: syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, and network-based. Badia explains each of these theoretical approaches in turn, discussing, among other topics, theories of Claude Shannon and Andrey Kolomogorov, Fred Dretske's description of information flow, and ideas on receiver impact and informational interactions. Badia argues that all these theories describe the same phenomena from different perspectives, each one narrower than the previous one. The syntactic approach is the more general one, but it fails to specify when information is meaningful to an agent, which is the focus of the semantic and pragmatic approaches. The network-based approach, meanwhile, provides a framework to understand information use among agents. Badia then explores the consequences of understanding information as existing at several levels. Humans live at the semantic and pragmatic level (and at the network level as a society), computers at the syntactic level. This sheds light on some recent issues, including "fake news" (computers cannot tell whether a statement is true or not, because truth is a semantic notion) and "algorithmic bias" (a pragmatic, not syntactic concern). Humans, not computers, the book argues, have the ability to solve these issues.
Inhalt: Introduction -- Information as codes : Shannon, Kolmogorov and the start of it all -- Information as content : semantics, possible worlds and all that jazz -- Information as pragmatics : impact and consequences -- Information as communication : networks and the phenomenon of emergence -- Will the real information please stand up? -- Is Shannon's theory a theory of information? -- Computers and information I : what can computers do? -- Computers and information II : machine learning, big data and algorithic bias -- Humans and information --Conclusions : where from here?
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 72(2021) no.3, S.357-361. (Marc Kosciejew)
Wissenschaftsfach: Informatik ; Kommunikationswissenschaften
LCSH: Information science / Philosophy ; Communication / Philosophy ; Information theory
RSWK: Massenmedien / Soziologie ; Informationsbeschaffung / Falschmeldung
BK: 05.31 Öffentlichkeit Kommunikationswissenschaft
2Day, R.E.: Indexing it all : the subject in the age of documentation, information, and data.
Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2014. XIV, 170 S.
(History and foundation of information science)
Abstract: In this book, Ronald Day offers a critical history of the modern tradition of documentation. Focusing on the documentary index (understood as a mode of social positioning), and drawing on the work of the French documentalist Suzanne Briet, Day explores the understanding and uses of indexicality. He examines the transition as indexes went from being explicit professional structures that mediated users and documents to being implicit infrastructural devices used in everyday information and communication acts. Doing so, he also traces three epistemic eras in the representation of individuals and groups, first in the forms of documents, then information, then data. Day investigates five cases from the modern tradition of documentation. He considers the socio-technical instrumentalism of Paul Otlet, "the father of European documentation" (contrasting it to the hermeneutic perspective of Martin Heidegger); the shift from documentation to information science and the accompanying transformation of persons and texts into users and information; social media's use of algorithms, further subsuming persons and texts; attempts to build android robots -- to embody human agency within an information system that resembles a human being; and social "big data" as a technique of neoliberal governance that employs indexing and analytics for purposes of surveillance. Finally, Day considers the status of critique and judgment at a time when people and their rights of judgment are increasingly mediated, displaced, and replaced by modern documentary techniques.
Inhalt: Paul Otlet : friends and books for information needsRepresenting documents and persons in information systems : library and information science and citation indexing and analysis -- Social computing and the indexing of the whole -- The document as the subject : androids -- Governing expression : social big data and neoliberalism.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch den Beitrag: Day, R.E.: An afterword to indexing it all: the subject in the age of documentation, information, and data. In: Bulletin of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 42(2016) no.2, S.25-28. Rez. in: JASIST 67(2016) no.7, S.1784-1786 (H.A. Olson).
Themenfeld: Geschichte der Sacherschließung
LCSH: Documentation / History ; Documentation / Social aspects ; Information science / Philosophy ; Information science / Social aspects ; Indexing / Social aspects ; Subject (Philosophy) ; Information technology / Social aspects
RSWK: Informations- und Dokumentationswissenschaft / Geschichte
BK: 06.01 Geschichte des Informations- und Dokumentationswesens
DDC: 025.3 ; 025.04
RVK: AN 95100
3Floridi, L.: ¬The philosophy of information.
Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press, 2011. XVIII, 405 S.
Abstract: This is the first volume in the tetralogy on the foundations of the philosophy of information. The reader interested in an introduction to its topics may find Information - A very Short Introduction helpful. The book fulfils three goals. The first is metatheoretical. The book describes what the philosophy of information is, its open problems, and its methods. The second goal is introductory. The book analyses the complex and diverse nature of informational concepts and phenomena, and defends the veridicality thesis and a theory of strongly semantic information. The third goal is constructive. The book tackles some classic philosophical questions in information-theoretical terms, such as how symbols acquire their semantics (the symbol-grounding problem), whether knowledge may be something different from justified true belief (the Gettier problem), or what kind of realism may be more plausible in philosophy of science (the debate on structural realism). The essential message is quite straightforward. Semantic information is well-formed, meaningful and truthful data; knowledge is relevant semantic information properly accounted for; humans are the only known semantic engines and conscious informational organisms who can develop a growing knowledge of reality; and reality is the totality of information (notice the crucial absence of "semantic").
Inhalt: What is the philosophy of information?. Introduction ; Philosophy of artificial intelligence as a premature paradigm of PI ; The historical emergence of PI ; The dialectic of reflection and the emergence of PI ; The definition of PI ; The analytic approach to PI ; The metaphysical approach to PI ; PI as philosophia prima -- Open problems in the philosophy of information. Introduction ; David Hilbert's view ; Analysis ; Semantics ; Intelligence ; Nature ; Values -- The method of levels of abstraction. Introduction Some definitions and preliminary examples ; A classic interpretation of the method of abstraction ; Some philosophical applications ; The philosophy of the method of abstraction -- ; Semantic information and the veridicality thesis. Introduction ; The data-based approach to semantic information ; The general definition of information ; Understanding data ; Taxonomic neutrality ; Typological neutrality ; Ontological neutrality ; Genetic neutrality ; Alethic neutrality ; Why false information is not a kind of semantic information ; Why false information is pseudo-information : attributive vs predictive use ; Why false information is pseudo-information : a semantic argument ; The definition of semantic information -- Outline of a theory of strongly semantic information. Introduction ; The Bar-Hillel-Carnap paradox ; Three criteria of information equivalence ; Three desiderata for TSSI ; Degrees of vacuity and inaccuracy ; Degrees of informativeness ; Quantities of vacuity and of semantic information ; The solution of the Bar-Hillel-Carnap paradox ; TSSI and the scandal of deduction -- ; The symbol grounding problem. Introduction ; The symbol of grounding problem ; The representationalist approach ; The semi-representationalist approach ; The non-representationalist approach -- Action-based semantics. Introduction ; Action-based semantics ; Two-machine artificial agents and their AbS ; From grounded symbols to grounded communication and abstractions -- Semantic information and the correctness theory of truth. Introduction ; First step : translation ; Second step : polarization ; Third step : normalization ; Fourth step : verification and validation ; Fifth step : correctness ; Some implications and advantages of the correctness theory of truth -- The logical unsolvability of the Gettier problem. Introduction ; Why the Gettier problem is unsolvable in principle ; Three objections and replies -- The logic of being informed. Introduction ; Three logics of information ; Modelling "being informed" ; Four epistemological implications of KTB-IL -- Understanding epistemic relevance. Introduction ; Epistemic vs casual relevance ; The basic case ; A probabilistic revision of the basic case ; A counterfactual revision of the probabilistic analysis ; A metatheoretical revision of the counterfactual analysis ; Advantages of the metatheoretical revision ; Some illustrative cases ; Misinformation cannot be relevant ; Two objections and replies -- ; Semantic information and the network theory of account. Introduction ; The nature of the upgrading problem : mutual independence ; Solving the upgrading problem : the network theory of account ; Advantages of a network theory of account ; Testing the network theory of account -- Consciousness, agents, and the knowledge game. Introduction ; The knowledge game ; The first and classic version of the knowledge game : externally inferable states ; The second version of the knowledge game ; The third version of the knowledge game ; The fourth version of the knowledge game ; Dretske's question and the knowledge game -- Against digital ontology. Introduction ; What is digital ontology : It from bit ; The thought experiment ; Three objections and replies -- A defense of informational structural realism. Introduction ; First step : ESR and OSR are not compatible ; Second step : Relata are not logically prior to all relations ; Third step : the concept of a structural object is not empty ; Informational structural realism ; Ten objections and replies.
LCSH: Information science / Philosophy
RSWK: Informations- und Dokumentationswissenschaft / Philosophie / / Information / Informationstheorie / Philosophie
BK: 08.49 (Systematische Philosophie: Sonstiges) ; 06.00 (Information und Dokumentation: Allgemeines)