Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Fry, H.: Hello World : was Algorithmen können und wie sie unser Leben verändern.
München : C.H.Beck, 2019. 272 S.
Abstract: Sie sind eines Verbrechens angeklagt. Wer soll über Ihr Schicksal entscheiden? Ein menschlicher Richter oder ein Computer-Algorithmus? Sie sind sich absolut sicher? Sie zögern womöglich? In beiden Fällen sollten Sie das Buch der jungen Mathematikerin und Moderatorin Hannah Fry lesen, das mit erfrischender Direktheit über Algorithmen aufklärt, indem es von Menschen handelt. Keine Dimension unserer Welt, in der sie nicht längst Einzug gehalten haben: Algorithmen, diese unscheinbaren Folgen von Anweisungen, die im Internet sowieso, aber auch in jedem Computerprogramm tätig sind, prägen in wachsendem, beängstigendem Ausmaß den Alltag von Konsum, Finanzen, Medizin, Polizei, Justiz, Demokratie und sogar Kunst. Sie sortieren die Welt für uns, eröffnen neue Optionen und nehmen uns Entscheidungen ab - schnell, effektiv, gründlich. Aber sie tun das häufig, ohne uns zu fragen, und sie stellen uns vor neue, keineswegs einfach zu lösende Dilemmata. Vor allem aber: Wir neigen dazu, Algorithmen als eine Art Autorität zu betrachten, statt ihre Macht in Frage zu stellen. Das öffnet Menschen, die uns ausbeuten wollen, Tür und Tor. Es verhindert aber auch, dass wir bessere Algorithmen bekommen. Solche, die uns bei Entscheidungen unterstützen, anstatt über uns zu verfügen. Die offenlegen, wie sie zu einer bestimmten Entscheidung gelangen. Demokratische, menschliche Algorithmen. Dafür plädiert dieses Buch-zugänglich, unterhaltsam, hochinformativ.
Inhalt: Vgl. die Rez. unter: https://www.handelsblatt.com/arts_und_style/literatur/buchtipp-hello-world-eine-mathematikerin-erklaert-wie-algorithmen-unser-leben-aendern/24116640.html?ticket=ST-483094-HdTLl6yxbiFuymq67d2Y-ap6.
Anmerkung: Originaltitel: Hello world: how to be human in the age of machine.
LCSH: Technology / Social aspects ; Technology / Moral and ethical aspects ; Algorithms
RSWK: Informationstechnik / Gesellschaft / Ethik / Algorithmus / Software
BK: 05.20 Kommunikation und Gesellschaft
DDC: 303.48/3 / dc23
GHBS: HNX (PB)
2Humphreys, L.: ¬The qualified self : social media and the accounting of everyday life.
Cambridge, MA : MIT Press, 2018. xvi, 179 S.
Abstract: How sharing the mundane details of daily life did not start with Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube but with pocket diaries, photo albums, and baby books. Social critiques argue that social media have made us narcissistic, that Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube are all vehicles for me-promotion. In The Qualified Self, Lee Humphreys offers a different view. She shows that sharing the mundane details of our lives?what we ate for lunch, where we went on vacation, who dropped in for a visit?didn't begin with mobile devices and social media. People have used media to catalog and share their lives for several centuries. Pocket diaries, photo albums, and baby books are the predigital precursors of today's digital and mobile platforms for posting text and images. The ability to take selfies has not turned us into needy narcissists; it's part of a longer story about how people account for everyday life. Humphreys refers to diaries in which eighteenth-century daily life is documented with the brevity and precision of a tweet, and cites a nineteenth-century travel diary in which a young woman complains that her breakfast didn't agree with her. Diaries, Humphreys explains, were often written to be shared with family and friends. Pocket diaries were as mobile as smartphones, allowing the diarist to record life in real time. Humphreys calls this chronicling, in both digital and nondigital forms, media accounting. The sense of self that emerges from media accounting is not the purely statistics-driven ?quantified self,? but the more well-rounded qualified self. We come to understand ourselves in a new way through the representations of ourselves that we create to be consumed.
Inhalt: Introduction -- Sharing the everyday -- Performing identity work -- Remembrancing -- Reckoning -- Conclusion
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 70(2019) no.9, S.1043-1044 (Alexander Halavais).
Wissenschaftsfach: Sozialwissenschaften ; Psychologie ; Kommunikationswissenschaften
LCSH: Information technology / Social aspects ; Social media ; Diaries / Social aspects ; Self / Social aspects ; Identity (Psychology) and mass media ; Information technology / Social aspects
RSWK: Social Media / Alltag / Selbstdarstellung / Narzissmus
BK: 05.38 Neue elektronische Medien Kommunikationswissenschaft ; 71.43 Technologische Faktoren Soziologie ; 05.20 Kommunikation und Gesellschaft ; 71.44 Gruppenprozesse Soziologie ; 08.38 Ethik ; 80.49 Medienerziehung ; 71.40 Soziale Prozesse: Allgemeines ; 77.63 Soziale Interaktion soziale Beziehungen
GHBS: HWY (DU) ; KNZZ (PB) ; OGE (HA) ; OFY (HA)
RVK: LC 13000 ; MR 6600 ; AP 16250 ; MS 7965 ; MR 6600 ; AP 16250 ; MS 7965 ; AP 15965
3Day, R.E.: Indexing it all : the subject in the age of documentation, information, and data.
Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2014. XIV, 170 S.
(History and foundation of information science)
Abstract: In this book, Ronald Day offers a critical history of the modern tradition of documentation. Focusing on the documentary index (understood as a mode of social positioning), and drawing on the work of the French documentalist Suzanne Briet, Day explores the understanding and uses of indexicality. He examines the transition as indexes went from being explicit professional structures that mediated users and documents to being implicit infrastructural devices used in everyday information and communication acts. Doing so, he also traces three epistemic eras in the representation of individuals and groups, first in the forms of documents, then information, then data. Day investigates five cases from the modern tradition of documentation. He considers the socio-technical instrumentalism of Paul Otlet, "the father of European documentation" (contrasting it to the hermeneutic perspective of Martin Heidegger); the shift from documentation to information science and the accompanying transformation of persons and texts into users and information; social media's use of algorithms, further subsuming persons and texts; attempts to build android robots -- to embody human agency within an information system that resembles a human being; and social "big data" as a technique of neoliberal governance that employs indexing and analytics for purposes of surveillance. Finally, Day considers the status of critique and judgment at a time when people and their rights of judgment are increasingly mediated, displaced, and replaced by modern documentary techniques.
Inhalt: Paul Otlet : friends and books for information needsRepresenting documents and persons in information systems : library and information science and citation indexing and analysis -- Social computing and the indexing of the whole -- The document as the subject : androids -- Governing expression : social big data and neoliberalism.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch den Beitrag: Day, R.E.: An afterword to indexing it all: the subject in the age of documentation, information, and data. In: Bulletin of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 42(2016) no.2, S.25-28. Rez. in: JASIST 67(2016) no.7, S.1784-1786 (H.A. Olson).
Themenfeld: Geschichte der Sacherschließung
LCSH: Documentation / History ; Documentation / Social aspects ; Information science / Philosophy ; Information science / Social aspects ; Indexing / Social aspects ; Subject (Philosophy) ; Information technology / Social aspects
RSWK: Informations- und Dokumentationswissenschaft / Geschichte
BK: 06.01 Geschichte des Informations- und Dokumentationswesens
DDC: 025.3 ; 025.04
RVK: AN 95100
4Weinberger, D.: Too big to know : rethinking knowledge now that the facts aren't the facts, experts are everywhere, and the smartest person in the room is the room.
New York : Basic Books, 2011. XIV, 231 S.
Abstract: In this title, a leading philosopher of the internet explains how knowledge and expertise can still work - and even grow stronger - in an age when the internet has made topics simply Too Big to Know. Knowing used to be so straightforward. If we wanted to know something we looked it up, asked an expert, gathered the facts, weighted the possibilities, and honed in on the best answer ourselves. But, ironically, with the advent of the internet and the limitless information it contains, we're less sure about what we know, who knows what, or even what it means to know at all. Knowledge, it would appear, is in crisis. And yet, while its very foundations seem to be collapsing, human knowledge has grown in previously unimaginable ways, and in inconceivable directions, in the Internet age. We fact-check the news media more closely and publicly than ever before. Science is advancing at an unheard of pace thanks to new collaborative techniques and new ways to find patterns in vast amounts of data. Businesses are finding expertise in every corner of their organization, and across the broad swath of their stakeholders. We are in a crisis of knowledge at the same time that we are in an epochal exaltation of knowledge. In "Too Big to Know", Internet philosopher David Weinberger explains that, rather than a systemic collapse, the Internet era represents a fundamental change in the methods we have for understanding the world around us. Weinberger argues that our notions of expertise - what it is, how it works, and how it is cultivated - are out of date, rooted in our pre-networked culture and assumptions. For thousands of years, we've relied upon a reductionist process of filtering, winnowing, and otherwise reducing the complex world to something more manageable in order to understand it. Back then, an expert was someone who had mastered a particular, well-defined domain. Now, we live in an age when topics are blown apart and stitched together by momentary interests, diverse points of view, and connections ranging from the insightful to the perverse. Weinberger shows that, while the limits of our own paper-based tools have historically prevented us from achieving our full capacity of knowledge, we can now be as smart as our new medium allows - but we will be smart differently. For the new medium is a network, and that network changes our oldest, most basic strategy of knowing. Rather than knowing-by-reducing, we are now knowing-by-including. Indeed, knowledge now is best thought of not as the content of books or even of minds, but as the way the network works. Knowledge will never be the same - not for science, not for business, not for education, not for government, not for any of us. As Weinberger makes clear, to make sense of this new system of knowledge, we need - and smart companies are developing - networks that are themselves experts. Full of rich and sometimes surprising examples from history, politics, business, philosophy, and science, "Too Big to Know" describes how the very foundations of knowledge have been overturned, and what this revolution means for our future.
Anmerkung: Rez. unter: http://www.netzpiloten.de/2012/03/30/rezension-too-big-to-know/.
LCSH: Information technology / Social aspects ; Internet / Social aspects ; Knowledge / Sociology of
RSWK: Informationsmanagement / Wissensmanagement / Informationstechnik / Internet
GHBS: OGC (FH K)
LCC: HM851 .W4297 2011
RVK: ST 515 ; AP 18420
5Palfrey, J. ; Gasser, U.: Generation Internet : die Digital Natives: Wie sie leben - Was sie denken - Wie sie arbeiten.Übersetzung aus dem Amerikanischen.
München : Hanser, Carl, 2008. VIII, 440 S.
Abstract: Der Wandel, den die digitale Revolution ausgelöst hat, besteht nicht nur in ausgefeilten Suchmaschinen und neuen Geschäftsmodellen. Weit folgenreicher ist die wachsende Kluft zwischen denen, die im Sternzeichen Internet geboren sind, und jenen, für die das nicht gilt. Die Kinder einer neuen Generation, die sich ein Leben ohne Google nicht vorstellen kann, sind nun volljährig. Sie sind die ersten Digital Natives, deren Mediengewohnheiten unsere Wirtschaft, unsere Kultur, ja sogar unser Familienleben tiefgreifend verändern. Die bisher sichtbaren Veränderungen stellen dabei nur die Spitze des Eisbergs dar. Wie lebt diese global vernetzte Generation von Digital Natives? Wie unterscheiden sie sich von früheren Generationen? Wie gehen sie mit Informationen um? Wahren sie ihre Privatsphäre? Was bedeutet Identität für junge Menschen, die Online-Profile und Avatare haben? Wie müssen Unternehmen mit ihnen kommunizieren? Welche Chancen und Risiken ergeben sich für die Gesellschaft? Basierend auf aktuellen Forschungsergebnissen zeichnet dieses Buch der Internetexperten John Palfrey und Urs Gasser das Porträt einer digital geborenen Generation und gewährt faszinierende Einblicke für alle, die unsere digitale Gegenwart begreifen wollen, um zu wissen, wie die Zukunft zu gestalten ist.
Inhalt: Original: Born digital : understanding the first generation of digital natives. New York : Basic Books, 2008.
Anmerkung: Vgl. den Rezensionsartikel: Beuth, P.: Sternzeichen Google. In: Frankfurter Rundschau. Nr.236 vom 91.10.2008, S.45. Weitere Rez. in: Mitt VÖB 62(2009) H.1, S.89-90 (M. Buzinkay)
LCSH: Information society / Social aspects ; Information technology / Social aspects ; Technological innovations / Social aspects ; Internet and children ; Internet and teenagers ; Internet / Social aspects ; Technology / Social aspects ; Digital media / Social aspects
DDC: 302.23/10835 / dc22
LCC: HM851.P34 2008
6Weinberger, D.: ¬Das Ende der Schublade : die Macht der neuen digitalen Unordnung.Aus dem Amerikan. von Ingrid Proß-Gill.
München : Hanser, 2008. 312 S.
Abstract: Ob wir spazieren gehen, einkaufen oder uns unterhalten - ständig teilen wir die Lebewesen und Dinge, die uns umgeben, ein in verschiedene Kategorien: Bäume und Blumen, Milchprodukte und Gemüse, sympathische Menschen und unsympathische. So schaffen wir Ordnung und finden uns in der Welt zurecht wie in einer Bibliothek - alles hat seinen Platz. Diese Ordnung kommt ins Wanken, sagt David Weinberger. Unser Denken in festen Kategorien führt uns auf Dauer nicht weiter, wir müssen lernen, mit Chaos, Unordnung und Unschärfe umzugehen. Nur so lässt sich verstehen, warum Projekte wie Wikipedia funktionieren, warum YouTube, Flickr und iTunes so populär und erfolgreich sind. Das ist nicht weniger als eine Revolution: Denn auf einmal verlieren Experten ihre Macht, soziale Netzwerke werden immer einflussreicher, Kunden und Bürger entscheiden selbst, weil sie am besten wissen, was sie wollen. Jeder besorgt sich genau die Informationen, die er braucht, und bringt sie in die Ordnung, die ihm am besten nützt. Ein faszinierendes Panorama der digitalen Welt von einem der profiliertesten Internet-Vordenker.
Anmerkung: Originaltitel: Everything is miscellaneous
LCSH: Knowledge management ; Information technology / Management ; Information technology / Social aspects ; Personal information management ; Information resources management ; Order
RSWK: Information / Digitalisierung / Unordnung / Wissensmanagement ; Informationsmanagement / Elektronisches Informationsmittel ; Wissensmanagement / Elektronisches Informationsmittel
BK: 06.35 / Informationsmanagement ; 05.20 / Kommunikation und Gesellschaft ; 06.74 / Informationssysteme
DDC: 303.4833 / DDC22ger
GHBS: OGC (E) ; OKH (FH K)
RVK: AK 28000 Allgemeines / Wissenschaftskunde und Wissenschaftsorganisation / Wissenschaftspraxis / Allgemeines ; AN 93200 Allgemeines / Buch- und Bibliothekswesen, Informationswissenschaft / Informationswissenschaft / Grundlagen, Theorie / Ordnungslehre, Systematik ; AP 18000 Allgemeines / Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaften, Kommunikationsdesign / Arten des Nachrichtenwesens, Medientechnik / Allgemeines ; QP 345 (BVB) ; AN 96300 (BVB) ; AK 27000 (BVB)
7Weinberger, D.: Everything is miscellaneous : the power of the new digital disorder.
New York : Times Books, 2007. 277 S.
Abstract: Human beings are information omnivores: we are constantly collecting, labeling, and organizing data. But today, the shift from the physical to the digital is mixing, burning, and ripping our lives apart. In the past, everything had its one place--the physical world demanded it--but now everything has its places: multiple categories, multiple shelves. Simply put, everything is suddenly miscellaneous. In Everything Is Miscellaneous, David Weinberger charts the new principles of digital order that are remaking business, education, politics, science, and culture. In his rollicking tour of the rise of the miscellaneous, he examines why the Dewey decimal system is stretched to the breaking point, how Rand McNally decides what information not to include in a physical map (and why Google Earth is winning that battle), how Staples stores emulate online shopping to increase sales, why your children's teachers will stop having them memorize facts, and how the shift to digital music stands as the model for the future in virtually every industry. Finally, he shows how by "going miscellaneous," anyone can reap rewards from the deluge of information in modern work and life. From A to Z, Everything Is Miscellaneous will completely reshape the way you think--and what you know--about the world.
Inhalt: Inhalt: The new order of order -- Alphabetization and its discontents -- The geography of knowledge -- Lumps and splits -- The laws of the jungle -- Smart leaves -- Social knowing -- What nothing says -- Messiness as a virtue -- The work of knowledge.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: Publishers Weekly. May 2007: "In a high-minded twist on the Internet-has-changed-everything book, Weinberger (Small Pieces Loosely Joined) joins the ranks of social thinkers striving to construct new theories around the success of Google and Wikipedia. Organization or, rather, lack of it, is the key: the author insists that "we have to get rid of the idea that there's a best way of organizing the world." Building on his earlier works' discussions of the Internet-driven shift in power to users and consumers, Weinberger notes that "our homespun ways of maintaining order are going to break-they're already breaking-in the digital world." Today's avalanche of fresh information, Weinberger writes, requires relinquishing control of how we organize pretty much everything; he envisions an ever-changing array of "useful, powerful and beautiful ways to make sense of our world." Perhaps carried away by his thesis, the author gets into extended riffs on topics like the history of classification and the Dewey Decimal System. At the point where readers may want to turn his musings into strategies for living or doing business, he serves up intriguing but not exactly helpful epigrams about "the third order of order" and "useful miscellaneousness." But the book's call to embrace complexity will influence thinking about "the newly miscellanized world."" ; Weitere Rez. in: BuB 59(2007) H.10, S.750-751 (J. Plieninger: Vermischtes und noch mehr ...): "Dass dieses Buch den Bibliothekaren gewidmet ist, stimmt tröstlich. Denn auf den Punkt gebracht, bedeutet sein Inhalt für unseren Berufsstand: Es kommt nicht mehr auf Euch an! Die Kernthese, die der Autor, ein bekannter Publizist zum Internet und Mitglied einer Harvard-Institution, in diesem Essay überaus anregend und mit vielen Beispielen gespickt ausführt, lautet: Dem Informationsüberfluss durch elektronische Dokumente kann nur noch durch noch mehr Information begegnet werden. ..." Weitere Rez. in JASIST 60(2009) no.6, S.1299-1300 (G Thornton). Vgl. für Rezensionen auch: http://www.everythingismiscellaneous.com/reviews/. ; Vgl. auch: http://www.faz.net/s/Rub475F682E3FC24868A8A5276D4FB916D7/Doc~E1FD1C505AE0148E1B2C3FF3567B9F2FB~ATpl~Ecommon~Scontent.html.
LCSH: Knowledge management ; Information technology / Management ; Information technology / Social aspects ; Personal information management ; Information resources management ; Order
BK: 06.74 / Informationssysteme
DDC: 303.48/33 / dc22
LCC: HD30.2.W4516 2007
8Möller, E.: ¬Die heimliche Medienrevolution : wie Weblogs, Wikis und freie Software die Welt verändern.2., erw. und aktualisierte Aufl.
Hannover : Heise, 2006. XV, 231 S.
Abstract: Medien bedeuten Macht. Kann das Internet Bertelsmann, Time Warner und Rupert Murdoch gefährlich werden? Großunternehmen versuchen auch die neuen Medien zu kapitalisieren, doch im globalen, dezentralen Kommunikationsnetz gelten andere Spielregeln. Auf der Basis freier Software, die von jedem kostenlos verändert und kopiert werden kann, entstehen völlig neue Medienformen. Millionen von "Weblogs" genannten Online-Postillen ergänzen die klassische Medienlandschaft um unabhängige Stimmen. Erste Experimente mit cleveren Finanzierungsmodellen zeigen, dass auf dieser Basis auch echter Journalismus möglich ist. Gleichzeitig arbeiten Tausende von Freiwilligen an offenen Wissensdatenbanken wie der gigantischen Enzyklopädie Wikipedia. Eine Konvergenz von Wikis und Weblogs zeichnet sich ab. Massive Online-Zusammenarbeit in den Bereichen Nachrichten, Wissen, Kunst und Kultur scheint unausweichlich oder findet bereits statt. Das revolutionäre Potenzial des Internet, das erst übertrieben, dann belächelt wurde, nimmt Konturen an. Dieses Buch erfasst den aktuellen Stand der Entwicklung, wagt einen vorsichtigen Blick in die Zukunft und liefert das notwendige Grundwissen zur direkten Partizipation an der neuen Medienwelt.
LCSH: Information technology / Social aspects ; Wikis (Computer science) ; Weblogs ; Internet / Social aspects
RSWK: Neue Medien / Benutzer / Beteiligung / Open Source / Web log / Wiki ; Informationsgesellschaft (SBBPK)
BK: 05.38 Neue elektronische Medien
; 77.63 Soziale Interaktion ; 06.74 Informationssysteme
DDC: 303.4833 ; 005.72 ; 006.7 ; 659.2
LCC: HM851 ; TK5105.8882 ; TK5105.8884
RVK: MS 7850 [Soziologie # Spezielle Soziologien # Soziologie der Massenkommunikation und öffentlichen Meinung # Allgemeine Theorie der gesellschaftlichen Kommunikation und ihrer Medien; Begriff der Öffentlichkeit; Meinungsbildung, public relations] ; ST 205 [Informatik # Monographien # Vernetzung, verteilte Systeme # Internet allgemein] ; SR 850 [Informatik # Nachschlagewerke. Didaktik # Allgemeines, Nachschlagewerke, Ausbildung # Gesellschaftliche Folgen der Datenverarbeitung] ; MF 1500 [Politologie # Politische Systeme: einzelne Elemente # Öffentliche Meinung (politische Kommunikation) # Presse, Massenmedien] ; AP 18420 [Allgemeines # Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaften, Kommunikationsdesign # Arten des Nachrichtenwesens, Medientechnik # Internet]
9Moore, A.D. (Hrsg.): Information ethics : privacy, property, and power.
Seattle, WA : University of Washington Press, 2005. 455 S.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 58(2007) no.2, S.302 (L.A. Ennis):"This is an important and timely anthology of articles "on the normative issues surrounding information control" (p. 11). Using an interdisciplinary approach, Moore's work takes a broad look at the relatively new field of information ethics. Covering a variety of disciplines including applied ethics, intellectual property, privacy, free speech, and more, the book provides information professionals of all kinds with a valuable and thought-provoking resource. Information Ethics is divided into five parts and twenty chapters or articles. At the end of each of the five parts, the editor has included a few "discussion cases," which allows the users to apply what they just read to potential real life examples. Part I, "An Ethical Framework for Analysis," provides readers with an introduction to reasoning and ethics. This complex and philosophical section of the book contains five articles and four discussion cases. All five of the articles are really thought provoking and challenging writings on morality. For instance, in the first article, "Introduction to Moral Reasoning," Tom Regan examines how not to answer a moral question. For example, he thinks using what the majority believes as a means of determining what is and is not moral is flawed. "The Metaphysics of Morals" by Immanuel Kant looks at the reasons behind actions. According to Kant, to be moral one has to do the right thing for the right reasons. By including materials that force the reader to think more broadly and deeply about what is right and wrong, Moore has provided an important foundation and backdrop for the rest of the book. Part II, "Intellectual Property: Moral and Legal Concerns," contains five articles and three discussion cases for tackling issues like ownership, patents, copyright, and biopiracy. This section takes a probing look at intellectual and intangible property from a variety of viewpoints. For instance, in "Intellectual Property is Still Property," Judge Frank Easterbrook argues that intellectual property is no different than physical property and should not be treated any differently by law. Tom Palmer's article, "Are Patents and Copyrights Morally Justified," however, uses historical examples to show how intellectual and physical properties differ. ; Part III, "Privacy and Information Control," has four articles and three discussion cases beginning with an 1890 article from the Harvard Law Review, "The Right to Privacy," written by Samuel A Warren and Louis D. Brandeis. Moore then includes an article debating whether people own their genes, an article on caller I.D., and an article on computer surveillance. While all four articles pose some very interesting questions, Margaret Everett's article "The Social Life of Genes: Privacy, Property, and the New Genetics" is incredible. She does a great job of demonstrating how advances in genetics have led to increased concerns over ownership and privacy of genetic codes. For instance, if someone's genetic code predisposes them to a deadly disease, should insurance companies have access to that information? Part IV, "Freedom of Speech and Information Control," has three articles and two discussion cases that examine speech and photography issues. Moore begins this section with Kent Greenawalt's "Rationales for Freedom of Speech," which looks at a number of arguments favoring free speech. Then the notion of free speech is carried over into the digital world in "Digital Speech and Democratic Culture: A Theory of Freedom of Expression for the Information Society" by Jack M. Balkin. At 59 pages, this is the work's longest article and demonstrates how complex the digital environment has made freedom of speech issues. Finally, Part V, "Governmental and Societal Control of Information," contains three articles and three discussion cases which provide an excellent view into the conflict between security and privacy. For instance, the first article, "Carnivore, the FBI's E-mail Surveillance System: Devouring Criminals, Not Privacy" by Griffin S. Durham, examines the FBI's e-mail surveillance program called Carnivore. Durham does an excellent job of demonstrating that Carnivore is a necessary and legitimate system used in limited circumstances and with a court order. Librarians will find the final article in the book, National Security at What Price? A Look into Civil Liberty Concerns in the Information Age under the USA Patriot Act by Jacob R. Lilly, of particular interest. In this article, Lilly uses historical examples of events that sacrificed civil liberties for national security such as the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II and the McCarthyism of the Cold War era to examine the PATRIOT Act. ; The book also includes an index, a selected bibliography, and endnotes for each article. More information on the authors of the articles would have been useful, however. One of the best features of Information Ethics is the discussion cases at the end of each chapter. For instance, in the discussion cases, Moore asks questions like: Would you allow one person to die to save nine? Should a scientist be allowed to experiment on people without their knowledge if there is no harm? Should marriages between people carrying a certain gene be outlawed? These discussion cases really add to the value of the readings. The only suggestion would be to have put them at the beginning of each section so the reader could have the questions floating in their heads as they read the material. Information Ethics is a well thought out and organized collection of articles. Moore has done an excellent job of finding articles to provide a fair and balanced look at a variety of complicated and far-reaching topics. Further, the work has breadth and depth. Moore is careful to include enough historical articles, like the 1890 Warren article, to give balance and perspective to new and modern topics like E-mail surveillance, biopiracy, and genetics. This provides a reader with just enough philosophy and history theory to work with the material. The articles are written by a variety of authors from differing fields so they range in length, tone, and style, creating a rich tapestry of ideas and arguments. However, this is not a quick or easy read. The subject matter is complex and one should plan to spend time with the book. The book is well worth the effort though. Overall, this is a highly recommended work for all libraries especially academic ones."
LCSH: Freedom of information ; Information society ; Intellectual property ; Privacy, Right of ; Communication / Moral and ethical aspects ; Information technology / Social aspects
BK: 06.00 / Information und Dokumentation: Allgemeines ; 06.35 / Informationsmanagement
DDC: 175 (SWB) ; 323.44/5 22 (GBV;LoC)
LCC: JC585.I59 2005
10Morgan, K. u.a. (Hrsg.): Human perspectives in the Internet society : culture, psychology and gender; International Conference on Human Perspectives in the Internet Society <1, 2004, Cádiz>.
Southampton, UK : WIT Press, 2004. 568 S.
(Advances in information and communication technologies ; 4)
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 58(2007) no.1, S.150-151 (L. Westbrook): "The purpose of this volume is to bring together various analyses by international scholars of the social and cultural impact of information technology on individuals and societies (preface, n.p.). It grew from the First International Conference on Human Perspectives in the Internet Society held in Cadiz, Spain, in 2004. The editors and contributors have addressed an impressive array of significant issues with rigorous research and insightful analysis although the resulting volume does suffer from the usual unevenness in depth and content that affects books based on conference proceedings. Although the $256 price is prohibitive for many individual scholars, the effort to obtain a library edition for perusal regarding particular areas of interest is likely to prove worthwhile. Unlike many international conferences that are able to attract scholars from only a handful of nations, this genuinely diverse conference included research conducted in Australia, Beijing, Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, England, Fiji, Germany, Greece, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia, Norway, Russia, Scotland, South Africa, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United States. The expense of a conference format and governmental travel restrictions may have precluded greater inclusion of the work being done to develop information technology for use in nonindustrialized nations in support of economic, social justice, and political movements. Although the cultural variants among these nations preclude direct cross-cultural comparisons, many papers carefully provide sufficient background information to make basic conceptual transfers possible. A great strength of the work is the unusual combination of academic disciplines that contributes substantially to the depth of many individual papers, particularly when they are read within the larger context of the entire volume. Although complete professional affiliations are not universally available, the authors who did name their affiliation come from widely divergent disciplines including accounting, business administration, architecture, business computing, communication, computing, economics, educational technology, environmental management, experimental psychology, gender research in computer science, geography, human work sciences, humanistic informatics, industrial engineering, information management, informatics in transport and telecommunications, information science, information technology, management, mathematics, organizational behavior, pedagogy, psychology, telemedicine, and women's education. This is all to the good, but the lack of representation from departments of women's studies, gender studies, and library studies certainly limits the breadth and depth of the perspectives provided. ; The editorial and peer review processes appear to be slightly spotty in application. All of the 55 papers are in English but a few of them are in such need of basic editing that they are almost incomprehensible in sections. Consider, for example, the following: "So, the meaning of region where we are studying on, should be discovered and then affect on the final plan" (p. 346). The collection shows a strong array of methodological approaches including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods studies; however, a few of the research efforts exhibit fundamental design flaws. Consider, for example, the study that "set[s] out to show that nurses as care-givers find it difficult to transfer any previously acquired technological skills into their work based on technology needs (p. 187). After studying 39 female and 6 male nurses, this study finds, not surprisingly, exactly what it "set out" to find. Rather than noting the limitations of sample size and data gathering techniques, the paper firmly concludes that nurses can be technologists "only in areas of technology that support their primary role as carers" (p. 188). Finally, some of the papers do not report on original research but are competent, if brief, summaries of theories or concepts that are covered in equal depth elsewhere. For example, a three-page summary of "the major personality and learning theories" (p. 3) is useful but lacks the intellectual depth or insight needed to contribute substantially to the field. These problems with composition, methodological rigor, and theoretical depth are not uncommon in papers designed for a broadly defined conference theme. The authors may have been writing for an in-person audience and anticipating thoughtful postpresentation discussions; they probably had no idea of the heavy price tag put on their work. The editors, however, might have kept that $256 in mind and exercised a heavier editorial hand. Perhaps the publisher could have paid for a careful subject indexing of the work as a substantive addition to the author index provided. The complexity of the subject domains included in the volume certainly merits careful indexing. ; The volume is organized into 13 sections, each of which contains between two and eight conference papers. As with most conferences, the papers do not cover the issues in each section with equal weight or depth but the editors have grouped papers into reasonable patterns. Section 1 covers "understanding online behavior" with eight papers on problems such as e-learning attitudes, the neuropsychology of HCI, Japanese blogger motivation, and the dividing line between computer addiction and high engagement. Sections 2 (personality and computer attitudes), 3 (cyber interactions), and 4 (new interaction methods) each contain only two papers on topics such as helmet-mounted displays, online energy audits, and the use of ICT in family life. Sections 6, 7, and 8 focus on gender issues with papers on career development, the computer literacy of Malaysian women, mentoring, gaming, and faculty job satisfaction. Sections 9 and 10 move to a broader examination of cyber society and its diversity concerns with papers on cultural identity, virtual architecture, economic growth's impact on culture, and Iranian development impediments. Section 11's two articles on advertising might well have been merged with those of section 13's ebusiness. Section 12 addressed education with papers on topics such as computer-assisted homework, assessment, and Web-based learning. It would have been useful to introduce each section with a brief definition of the theme, summaries of the major contributions of the authors, and analyses of the gaps that might be addressed in future conferences. Despite the aforementioned concerns, this volume does provide a uniquely rich array of technological analyses embedded in social context. An examination of recent works in related areas finds nothing that is this complex culturally or that has such diversity of disciplines. Cultural Production in a Digital Age (Klinenberg, 2005), Perspectives and Policies on ICT in Society (Berleur & Avgerou, 2005), and Social, Ethical, and Policy Implications of Information Technology (Brennan & Johnson, 2004) address various aspects of the society/Internet intersection but this volume is unique in its coverage of psychology, gender, and culture issues in cyberspace. The lip service often given to global concerns and the value of interdisciplinary analysis of intransigent social problems seldom develop into a genuine willingness to listen to unfamiliar research paradigms. Academic silos and cultural islands need conferences like this one-willing to take on the risk of examining the large questions in an intellectually open space. Editorial and methodological concerns notwithstanding, this volume merits review and, where appropriate, careful consideration across disciplines."
LCSH: Information technology / Psychological aspects / Congresses ; Information society / Congresses ; Information technology / Social aspects / Congresses ; Information technology / Economic aspects / Congresses ; Internet / Social aspects / Congresses
RSWK: Informationstechnik / Psychologie / Kongress / Cádiz <2004> (BVB) ; Informationsgesellschaft / Verhalten / Kongress / Cádiz «2004» (BVB) ; Informationstechnik / Psychologie / Techniksoziologie / Kongress (GBV)
BK: 54.08 Informatik in Beziehung zu Mensch und Gesellschaft ; 71.43 Technologische Faktoren
DDC: 004.019 ; 303.48/33 22 (LoC)
LCC: HM851.I569 2004
RVK: AP 15840 Allgemeines / Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaften, Kommunikationsdesign / Formen der Kommunikation und des Kommunikationsdesigns / Elektronisch unterstützte Formen ; MS 7850 Soziologie / Spezielle Soziologien / Soziologie der Massenkommunikation und öffentlichen Meinung / Allgemeine Theorie der gesellschaftlichen Kommunikation und ihrer Medien; Begriff der Öffentlichkeit; Meinungsbildung, public relations ; SR 850 Informatik / Nachschlagewerke. Didaktik / Allgemeines, Nachschlagewerke, Ausbildung / Gesellschaftliche Folgen der Datenverarbeitung
11Warner, J.: Humanizing information technology.
Lanham, MD : Scarecrow Press, 2004. 143 S.
Inhalt: An information view of history -- Organs of the human brain, created by the human hand : toward an understanding of information technology -- Information society or cash nexus? : a study of the United States as a copyright haven -- As sharp as a pen : direct semantic ratification in oral, written, and electronic communication -- In the catalogue ye go for men : evaluation criteria for information retrieval systems -- Meta- and object-language for information retrieval research : proposal for a distinction -- Forms of labor in information systems -- W(h)ither information science?
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST. 56(2003) no.12, S.1360 (C.Tomer): "Humanizing Information Technology is a collection of essays that represent what are presumably Julian Warner's best efforts to understand the perpetually nascent discipline of information science and its relationship to information technology. It is clearly a formidable task. Warner succeeds occasionally in this endeavor; more often, he fails. Yet, it would be wrong to mark Humanizing Information Technology as a book not worth reading. On the contrary, though much fault was found and this review is far from positive, it was nevertheless a book well-worth reading. That Humanizing Information Technology succeeds at all is in some ways remarkable, because Warner's prose tends to be dense and graceless, and understanding his commentaries often relies an close readings of a wide array of sources, some of them familiar, many of them less so. The inaccessibility of Warner's prose is unfortunate; there is not a single idea in Humanizing Information Technology so complicated that it could not have been stated in a clear, straightforward manner. The failure to establish a clear, sufficiently füll context for the more obscure sources is an even more serious problem. Perhaps the most conspicuous example of this problem stems from the frequent examination of the concept of the "information society" and the related notion of information as an autonomous variable, each of them ideas drawn largely from Frank Webster's 1995 book, Theories of the Information Society. Several of Warner's essays contain passages in Humanizing Information Technology whose meaning and value are largely dependent an a familiarity with Webster's work. Yet, Warner never refers to Theories of the Information Society in more than cursory terms and never provides a context füll enough to understand the particular points of reference. Suffice it to say, Humanizing Information Technology is not a book for readers who lack patience or a thorough grounding in modern intellectual history. Warner's philosophical analyses, which frequently exhibit the meter, substance, and purpose of a carefully crafted comprehensive examination, are a large part of what is wrong with Humanizing Information Technology. Warner's successes come when he turns his attention away from Marxist scholasticism and toward historical events and trends. "Information Society or Cash Nexus?" the essay in which Warner compares the role of the United States as a "copyright haven" for most of the 19th century to modern China's similar status, is successful because it relies less an abstruse analysis and more an a sharply drawn comparison of the growth of two economies and parallel developments in the treatment of intellectual property. The essay establishes an illuminating context and cites historical precedents in the American experience suggesting that China's official positions toward intellectual property and related international conventions are likely to evolve and grow more mature as its economy expands and becomes more sophisticated. Similarly, the essay entitled "In the Catalogue Ye Go for Men" is effective because Warner comes dangerously close to pragmatism when he focuses an the possibility that aligning cataloging practice with the "paths and tracks" of discourse and its analysis may be the means by which to build more information systems that furnish a more direct basis for intellectual exploration. ; Like Daniel Bell, the author of The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (1973), who used aspects of Marx's thinking as the basis for his social forecasting models, Warner uses Marxist thought as a tool for social and historical analysis. Unlike Bell, Warner's approach to Marx tends to be doctrinaire. As a result, "An Information View of History" and "Origins of the Human Brain," two of the essays in which Warner sets out to establish the connections between information science and information technology, are less successful. Warner argues, "the classic source for an understanding of technology as a human construction is Marx," and that "a Marxian perspective an information technology could be of high marginal Utility," noting additionally that with the exception of Norbert Wiener and John Desmond Bernal, "there has only been a limited penetration of Marxism into information science" (p. 9). But Warner's efforts to persuade the reader that these views are cogent never go beyond academic protocol. Nor does his support for the assertion that the second half of the 19th century was the critical period for innovation and diffusion of modern information technologies. The closing essay, "Whither Information Science?" is particularly disappointing, in part, because the preface and opening chapters of the book promised more than was delivered at the end. Warner asserts that the theoretical framework supporting information science is negligible, and that the discipline is limited even further by the fact that many of its members do not recognize or understand the effects of such a limitation. However cogent the charges may be, none of this is news. But the essay fails most notably because Warner does not have any new directions to offer, save that information scientists should pay closer artention to what is going an in allied disciplines. Moreover, he does not seem to understand that at its heart the "information revolution" is not about the machines, but about the growing legions of men and women who can and do write programming code to exert control over and find new uses for these devices. Nor does he seem to understand that information science, in the grip of what he terms a "quasi-global crisis," suffers grievously because it is a community situated not at the center but rather an the periphery of this revolution."
LCSH: Information science ; Information technology / Social aspects ; Information society ; Information storage and retrieval systems
RSWK: Informationsgesellschaft / Informationstechnik / Information-Retrieval-System / Informationsspeicher
DDC: 303.48/33 / dc22
LCC: Z665.W27 2004
RVK: MS 7850
12Rogers, R.: Information politics on the Web.
Cambridge, MA : MIT Press, 2004. xi, 200 S.
Abstract: Rogers presents a profoundly different way of thinking about information in cyberspace, one that supports the political efforts of democratic activists and NGOs and takes seriously the epistemological issues at the heart of networked communications.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 58(2007) no.4, S.608-609 (K.D. Desouza): "Richard Rogers explores the distinctiveness of the World Wide Web as a politically contested space where information searchers may encounter multiple explanations of reality. Sources of information on the Web are in constant competition with each other for attention. The attention a source receives will determine its prominence, the ability to be a provider of leading information, and its inclusion in authoritative spaces. Rogers explores the politics behind evaluating sources that are collected and housed on authoritative spaces. Information politics on the Web can be looked at in terms of frontend or back-end politics. Front-end politics is concerned with whether sources on the Web pay attention to principles of inclusivity, fairness, and scope of representation in how information is presented, while back-end politics examines the logic behind how search engines or portals select and index information. Concerning front-end politics, Rogers questions the various versions of reality one can derive from examining information on the Web, especially when issues of information inclusivity and scope of representation are toiled with. In addition, Rogers is concerned with how back-end politics are being controlled by dominant forces of the market (i.e., the more an organization is willing to pay, the greater will be the site's visibility and prominence in authoritative spaces), regardless of whether the information presented on the site justifies such a placement. In the book, Rogers illustrates the issues involved in back-end and front-end politics (though heavily slanted on front-end politics) using vivid cases, all of which are derived from his own research. The main thrust is the exploration of how various "information instruments," defined as "a digital and analytical means of recording (capturing) and subsequently reading indications of states of defined information streams (p. 19)," help capture the politics of the Web. Rogers employs four specific instruments (Lay Decision Support System, Issue Barometer, Web Issue Index of Civil Society, and Election Issue Tracker), which are covered in detail in core chapters of the book (Chapter 2-Chapter 5). The book is comprised of six chapters, with Chapter 1 being the traditional introduction and Chapter 6 being a summary of the major concepts discussed. ; Chapter 2 examines the politics of information retrieval in the context of collaborative filtering techniques. Rogers begins by discussing the underpinnings of modern search engine design by examining medieval practices of knowledge seeking, following up with a critique of the collaborative filtering techniques. Rogers's major contention is that collaborative filtering rids us of user idiosyncrasies as search query strings, preferences, and recommendations are shared among users and without much care for the differences among them, both in terms of their innate characteristics and also their search goals. To illustrate Rogers' critiques of collaborative filtering, he describes an information searching experiment that he conducted with students at University of Vienna and University of Amsterdam. Students were asked to search for information on Viagra. As one can imagine, depending on a number of issues, not the least of which is what sources did one extract information from, a student would find different accounts of reality about Viagra, everything from a medical drug to a black-market drug ideal for underground trade. Rogers described how information on the Web differed from official accounts for certain events. The information on the Web served as an alternative reality. Chapter 3 describes the Web as a dynamic debate-mapping tool, a political instrument. Rogers introduces the "Issue Barometer," an information instrument that measures the social pressure on a topic being debated by analyzing data available from the Web. Measures used by the Issue Barometer include temperature of the issue (cold to hot), activity level of the debate (mild to intense), and territorialization (one country to many countries). The Issues Barometer is applied to an illustrative case of the public debate surrounding food safety in the Netherlands in 2001. Chapter 4 introduces "The Web Issue Index," which provides an indication of leading societal issues discussed on the Web. The empirical research on the Web Issues Index was conducted on the Genoa G8 Summit in 1999 and the anti-globalization movement. Rogers focus here was to examine the changing nature of prominent issues over time, i.e., how issues gained and lost attention and traction over time. ; In Chapter 5, the "Election Issue Tracker" is introduced. The Election Issue Tracker calculates currency that is defined as "frequency of mentions of the issue terms per newspaper and across newspapers" in the three major national newspapers. The Election Issue Tracker is used to study which issues resonate with the press and which do not. As one would expect, Rogers found that not all issues that are considered important or central to a political party resonate with the press. This book contains a wealth of information that can be accessed by both researcher and practitioner. Even more interesting is the fact that researchers from a wide assortment of disciplines, from political science to information science and even communication studies, will appreciate the research and insights put forth by Rogers. Concepts presented in each chapter are thoroughly described using a wide variety of cases. Albeit all the cases are of a European flavor, mainly Dutch, they are interesting and thought-provoking. I found the descriptions of Rogers various information instruments to be very interesting. Researchers can gain from an examination of these instruments as it points to an interesting method for studying activities and behaviors on the Internet. In addition, each chapter has adequate illustrations and the bibliography is comprehensive. This book will make for an ideal supplementary text for graduate courses in information science, communication and media studies, and even political science. Like all books, however, this book had its share of shortcomings. While I was able to appreciate the content of the book, and certainly commend Rogers for studying an issue of immense significance, I found the book to be very difficult to read and parse through. The book is laden with jargon, political statements, and even has several instances of deficient writing. The book also lacked a sense of structure, and this affected the presentation of Rogers' material. I would have also hoped to see some recommendations by Rogers in terms of how should researchers further the ideas he has put forth. Areas of future research, methods for studying future problems, and even insights on what the future might hold for information politics were not given enough attention in the book; in my opinion, this was a major shortcoming. Overall, I commend Rogers for putting forth a very informative book on the issues of information politics on the Web. Information politics, especially when delivered on the communication technologies such as the Web, is going to play a vital role in our societies for a long time to come. Debates will range from the politics of how information is searched for and displayed on the Web to how the Web is used to manipulate or politicize information to meet the agendas of various entities. Richard Rogers' book will be of the seminal and foundational readings on the topic for any curious minds that want to explore these issues."
LCSH: nformation technology / Social aspects ; Information technology / Political aspects ; Web search engines / Political aspects ; Web portals / Political aspects ; Civil society ; Knowledge, Sociology of
RSWK: Informationstechnik / Politik / Technikbewertung ; Informationstechnik / Politik (SWB) ; Informationstechnik / Soziologiestudium (SWB) ; Politik / Internet (GBV, BVB)
BK: 54.08 Informatik in Beziehung zu Mensch und Gesellschaft
DDC: 303.48/33 / dc22
LCC: HM851.R65 2004
RVK: AP 18420 Allgemeines / Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaften, Kommunikationsdesign / Arten des Nachrichtenwesens, Medientechnik / Internet ; MF 1000 Politologie / Politische Systeme: einzelne Elemente / Öffentliche Meinung (politische Kommunikation) ; ST 205
13Levy, P.: Collective intelligence : mankind's emerging world in cyberspace.translated from the French by Robert Bononno.
New York : Wiley, 1997. XXVIII, 277 S.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: Mousaion 16(1998) no.1, S.131 (F. de Beer)
Themenfeld: Internet ; Vision
LCSH: Information technology / Social aspects ; Human / computer interaction
RSWK: Kultur / Intelligenz / Cyberspace ; Cyberspace / Wissensorganisation / Wissenserwerb / Wissensvermittlung
BK: 54.76 Computersimulation
DDC: 306.42 ; 004.019
14Levinson, P.: ¬The soft edge : a natural history and future of the information revolution.
London : Routledge, 1997. xviii, 257 S.
Abstract: According to Paul Levinson, it would be improper to portray information technology as the cause of change in our world. However, Levinson clarifies that its role in enabling change can hardly be overestimated. He also points out--through riveting examples--that inventions have unintended consequences and uses. Why is it, for example, that the move from polytheism to monotheism failed when attempted by the pharaoh Ikhnaton, yet took solid root among the Hebrews who were taken out of Egypt by Moses only about 150 years later? Levinson argues that communication technology played a key role: The awkward Egyptian hieroglyphics failed to carry the ideology as well as the Hebrew alphabetic system. From there, Levinson examines the early social changes that became possible because of what the author calls "the first digital medium"--the alphabet. He considers how the Reformation, economic and political movements, and the scientific revolution were largely enabled by the printing press. He then discusses the influence of photographic communications and electronic technology such as the telegraph, the telephone, and broadcasting. Levinson devotes the second half of the book to our present digital revolution, from word processing to the Internet and beyond. One of his key points is that new technology doesn't necessarily displace the old so much as it expands it. Therefore, he doesn't see any end to using paper anytime soon. However, he sees great need for changes in the way we view creative rights. He proposes what he calls an"electronic watermark" for intellectual property--a universal patent number that will be embedded in intellectual property and will notify users in any medium of the property's creators. Levinson puts forth his ideas in a manner that is both formal and engaging. He has a knack for making his reader feel intelligent and respected--and never more so than when he looks at issues of ethics and a speculative future.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: Managing information 4(1997) no.11, S.41 (M. Duncan)
LCSH: Information technology / Social aspects ; Information technology / History ; Information technology / Forecasting
RSWK: Informationstechnik / Geschichte ; Informationstechnik / Prognose
BK: 06.30 / Bibliothekswesen / Dokumentationswesen: Allgemeines ; 05.38 / Neue elektronische Medien
DDC: 302.23 / dc21
LCC: T58.5.L385 1997
RVK: SR 800 Informatik / Nachschlagewerke. Didaktik / Allgemeines, Nachschlagewerke, Ausbildung / Geschichte der Datenverarbeitung
15Martin, W.J.: ¬The information society.
London : Aslib, 1995.
LCSH: Technology / Social aspects ; Information storage and retrieval systems / Social aspects
Precis: Society / Effects of technological development in information systems