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1Szostak, R.: Classifying science : phenomena, data, theory, method, practice.
Berlin : Springer Netherland, 2004. 286 S.
(Information Science & Knowledge Management ; 7)
Abstract: Classification is the essential first step in science. The study of science, as well as the practice of science, will thus benefit from a detailed classification of different types of science. In this book, science - defined broadly to include the social sciences and humanities - is first unpacked into its constituent elements: the phenomena studied, the data used, the theories employed, the methods applied, and the practices of scientists. These five elements are then classified in turn. Notably, the classifications of both theory types and methods allow the key strengths and weaknesses of different theories and methods to be readily discerned and compared. Connections across classifications are explored: should certain theories or phenomena be investigated only with certain methods? What is the proper function and form of scientific paradigms? Are certain common errors and biases in scientific practice associated with particular phenomena, data, theories, or methods? The classifications point to several ways of improving both specialized and interdisciplinary research and teaching, and especially of enhancing communication across communities of scholars. The classifications also support a superior system of document classification that would allow searches by theory and method used as well as causal links investigated.
Inhalt: Inhalt: - Chapter 1: Classifying Science: 1.1. A Simple Classificatory Guideline - 1.2. The First "Cut" (and Plan of Work) - 1.3. Some Preliminaries - Chapter 2: Classifying Phenomena and Data: 2.1. Classifying Phenomena - 2.2. Classifying Data - Chapter 3: Classifying Theory: 3.1. Typology of Theory - 3.2. What Is a Theory? - 3.3. Evaluating Theories - 3.4. Types of Theory and the Five Types of Causation - 3.5. Classifying Individual Theories - 3.6. Advantages of a Typology of Theory - Chapter 4: Classifying Method: 4.1. Classifying Methods - 4.2. Typology of Strengths and Weaknesses of Methods - 4.3. Qualitative Versus Quantitative Analysis Revisited - 4.4. Evaluating Methods - 4.5. Classifying Particular Methods Within The Typology - 4.6. Advantages of a Typology of Methods - Chapter 5: Classifying Practice: 5.1. Errors and Biases in ScienceChapter - 5.2. Typology of (Critiques of) Scientific Practice - 5.3. Utilizing This Classification - 5.4. The Five Types of Ethical Analysis - Chapter 6: Drawing Connections Across These Classifications: 6.1. Theory and Method - 6.2. Theory (Method) and Phenomena (Data) - 6.3. Better Paradigms - 6.4. Critiques of Scientific Practice: Are They Correlated with Other Classifications? - Chapter 7: Classifying Scientific Documents: 7.1. Faceted or Enumerative? - 7.2. Classifying By Phenomena Studied - 7.3. Classifying By Theory Used - 7.4. Classifying By Method Used - 7.5 Links Among Subjects - 7.6. Type of Work, Language, and More - 7.7. Critiques of Scientific Practice - 7.8. Classifying Philosophy - 7.9. Evaluating the System - Chapter 8: Concluding Remarks: 8.1. The Classifications - 8.2. Advantages of These Various Classifications - 8.3. Drawing Connections Across Classifications - 8.4. Golden Mean Arguments - 8.5. Why Should Science Be Believed? - 8.6. How Can Science Be Improved? - 8.7. How Should Science Be Taught?
Anmerkung: Rez. in: KO 32(2005) no.2, S.93-95 (H. Albrechtsen): "The book deals with mapping of the structures and contents of sciences, defined broadly to include the social sciences and the humanities. According to the author, the study of science, as well as the practice of science, could benefit from a detailed classification of different types of science. The book defines five universal constituents of the sciences: phenomena, data, theories, methods and practice. For each of these constituents, the author poses five questions, in the well-known 5W format: Who, What, Where, When, Why? - with the addition of the question How? (Szostak 2003). Two objectives of the author's endeavor stand out: 1) decision support for university curriculum development across disciplines and decision support for university students at advanced levels of education in selection of appropriate courses for their projects and to support cross-disciplinary inquiry for researchers and students; 2) decision support for researchers and students in scientific inquiry across disciplines, methods and theories. The main prospective audience of this book is university curriculum developers, university students and researchers, in that order of priority. The heart of the book is the chapters unfolding the author's ideas about how to classify phenomena and data, theory, method and practice, by use of the 5W inquiry model. . . . ; Despite its methodological flaws and lack of empirical foundation, the book could potentially bring new ideas to current discussions within the practices of curriculum development and knowledge management as weIl as design of information systems, an classification schemes as tools for knowledge sharing, decision-making and knowledge exploration. I hesitate to recommend the book to students, except to students at advanced levels of study, because of its biased presentation of the new ideas and its basis an secondary literature." ; Weitere Rez. in: JASIST 57(2006) no.14, S.1977-1978 (Y. Su); KO 39(2012) no.4, S.300-303 (M.J. Fox)
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
LCSH: Classification of sciences
BK: 06.70 Katalogisierung ; 02.02 Wissenschaftstheorie
LCC: Q177.S96 2004
2Frängsmyr, T. (Hrsg.): ¬The structure of knowledge : classifications of science and learning since the Renaissance ; International Summer School in History of Science <1998, Uppsala>.
Berkeley : Office for History of Science and Technology, University of California, 2001. 158 S.
(Bologna studies in history of science ; 28) (Berkeley papers in history of science ; 19) (Uppsala studies in history of science ; 28)
Inhalt: Inhalt: The contents in the book are as below: 1. Building the house of knowledge: The structures of thought in late Renaissance Europe by Paula Findlen; 2. Epistemological angst: From encyclopedism to advertising by Robert Darnton; 3. Linnaeus and the classification tradition in Sweden by Tore Frängsmyr; 4. Humboldtian distribution maps: The spatial ordering of scientific knowledge by Nicolaas Rupke; 5.The old production of knowledge: The academic system of science in Sweden, 1880-1950 by Sven Widmalm
Anmerkung: Rez. in KO 39(2012) no.2, S.137-141 (http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_39_2012_2_i.pdf; A. Isfandyari-Moghaddam)
Themenfeld: Geschichte der Klassifikationssysteme
LCSH: Classification of sciences ; Science / History ; Science / Philosophy
RSWK: Wissenschaftsklassifikation / Geschichte (GBV) ; Naturwissenschaften / Klassifikation / Geschichte 1420-1950 / Aufsatzsammlung (BSZ)
BK: 30.01 / Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften
LCC: Q177 .S77 2001
RVK: AK 16400 ; TB 2350