Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Short, M.: Text mining and subject analysis for fiction; or, using machine learning and information extraction to assign subject headings to dime novels.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 57(2019) no.5, S.315-336.
Abstract: This article describes multiple experiments in text mining at Northern Illinois University that were undertaken to improve the efficiency and accuracy of cataloging. It focuses narrowly on subject analysis of dime novels, a format of inexpensive fiction that was popular in the United States between 1860 and 1915. NIU holds more than 55,000 dime novels in its collections, which it is in the process of comprehensively digitizing. Classification, keyword extraction, named-entity recognition, clustering, and topic modeling are discussed as means of assigning subject headings to improve their discoverability by researchers and to increase the productivity of digitization workflows.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2019.1653413.
Themenfeld: Schöne Literatur ; Automatisches Indexieren ; Data Mining ; Inhaltsanalyse
2Hauser, E. ; Tennis, J.T.: Episemantics: aboutness as aroundness.
In: Knowledge organization. 46(2019) no.8, S.590-595.
Abstract: Aboutness ranks amongst our field's greatest bugbears. What is a work about? How can this be known? This mirrors debates within the philosophy of language, where the concept of representation has similarly evaded satisfactory definition. This paper proposes that we abandon the strong sense of the word aboutness, which seems to promise some inherent relationship between work and subject, or, in philosophical terms, between word and world. Instead, we seek an etymological reset to the older sense of aboutness as "in the vicinity, nearby; in some place or various places nearby; all over a surface." To distinguish this sense in the context of information studies, we introduce the term episemantics. The authors have each independently applied this term in slightly different contexts and scales (Hauser 2018a; Tennis 2016), and this article presents a unified definition of the term and guidelines for applying it at the scale of both words and works. The resulting weak concept of aboutness is pragmatic, in Star's sense of a focus on consequences over antecedents, while reserving space for the critique and improvement of aboutness determinations within various contexts and research programs. The paper finishes with a discussion of the implication of the concept of episemantics and methodological possibilities it offers for knowledge organization research and practice. We draw inspiration from Melvil Dewey's use of physical aroundness in his first classification system and ask how aroundness might be more effectively operationalized in digital environments.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Special Issue: Best papers from NASKO, ISKO-UK, ISKO-France, ISKO-Brazil 2019.
3Pozzi de Sousa, B. ; Ortega, C.D.: Aspects regarding the notion of subject in the context of different theoretical trends : teaching approaches in Brazil.
In: Challenges and opportunities for knowledge organization in the digital age: proceedings of the Fifteenth International ISKO Conference, 9-11 July 2018, Porto, Portugal / organized by: International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO), ISKO Spain and Portugal Chapter, University of Porto - Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Research Centre in Communication, Information and Digital Culture (CIC.digital) - Porto. Eds.: F. Ribeiro u. M.E. Cerveira. Baden-Baden : Ergon Verlag, 2018. S.74-85.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.16)
Themenfeld: Ausbildung ; Inhaltsanalyse
4Diao, J.: Conceptualizations of catalogers' judgment through content analysis : a preliminary investigation.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 56(2018) no.4, S.298-316.
Abstract: Catalogers' judgment has been frequently mentioned, but rarely has been researched in formal studies. The purpose of this article is to investigate catalogers' judgment through an exploration of the texts collected in the database of Library and Information Science Source. Verbs, adjectives, and nouns intimately associated with catalogers' judgment were extracted, analyzed, and grouped into 16 categories, which lead to 5 conceptual descriptions. The results of this study provide cataloging professionals with an overall picture on aspects of catalogers' judgment, which may help library school students and graduates and novice catalogers to become independent and confident decision makers relating to cataloging work.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2017.1393782.
5Lassak, L.: ¬Ein Versuch zur Repräsentation von Charakteren der Kinder- und Jugendbuchserie "Die drei ???" in einer Datenbank.
Berlin : Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultät, Institut für Bibliotheks- und Informationswissenschaft, 2017. 120 S.
Abstract: Die vorliegende Masterarbeit setzt sich mit dem Information Retrieval anhand der Repräsentation von Charakteren der Kinder und Jugendbuchserie "Die drei ???" mit dem Datenbanksystem Access auseinander. Dabei werden sämtliche Aspekte von der Informations- und Datenbeschaffung aus 55 "Die drei ???"-Büchern über die Datenbankerstellung und -aufbereitung bis hin zu den abschließenden Evaluationen beschrieben. Insbesondere versucht die Arbeit die Nutzergruppe Autoren abzudecken, so dass die Datenbank ihnen eine erleichterte Figurenübersicht und eine Hilfestellung bei der Figurensuche geben soll.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://edoc.hu-berlin.de/handle/18452/19281.
Anmerkung: Masterarbeit zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Master of Arts (M. A.)
Themenfeld: Schöne Literatur ; Inhaltsanalyse
6Hjoerland, B.: Knowledge organization (KO).
In: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.1, S.55-64.
Abstract: This article presents and discusses the concept "subject" or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between documentoriented views versus request-oriented views. The documentoriented view conceives subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policybased view) understands subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining "subject" (of a document) is the document's informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the document's potentials of informing users and advancing the development of knowledge.
7Saif, H. ; He, Y. ; Fernandez, M. ; Alani, H.: Contextual semantics for sentiment analysis of Twitter.
In: Information processing and management. 52(2016) no.1, S.5-19.
Abstract: Sentiment analysis on Twitter has attracted much attention recently due to its wide applications in both, commercial and public sectors. In this paper we present SentiCircles, a lexicon-based approach for sentiment analysis on Twitter. Different from typical lexicon-based approaches, which offer a fixed and static prior sentiment polarities of words regardless of their context, SentiCircles takes into account the co-occurrence patterns of words in different contexts in tweets to capture their semantics and update their pre-assigned strength and polarity in sentiment lexicons accordingly. Our approach allows for the detection of sentiment at both entity-level and tweet-level. We evaluate our proposed approach on three Twitter datasets using three different sentiment lexicons to derive word prior sentiments. Results show that our approach significantly outperforms the baselines in accuracy and F-measure for entity-level subjectivity (neutral vs. polar) and polarity (positive vs. negative) detections. For tweet-level sentiment detection, our approach performs better than the state-of-the-art SentiStrength by 4-5% in accuracy in two datasets, but falls marginally behind by 1% in F-measure in the third dataset.
Inhalt: Vgl.: doi:10.1016/j.ipm.2015.01.005.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Themenheft "Emotion and sentiment in social and expressive media"
8Bertola, F. ; Patti, V.: Ontology-based affective models to organize artworks in the social semantic web.
In: Information processing and management. 52(2016) no.1, S.139-162.
Abstract: In this paper, we focus on applying sentiment analysis to resources from online art collections, by exploiting, as information source, tags intended as textual traces that visitors leave to comment artworks on social platforms. We present a framework where methods and tools from a set of disciplines, ranging from Semantic and Social Web to Natural Language Processing, provide us the building blocks for creating a semantic social space to organize artworks according to an ontology of emotions. The ontology is inspired by the Plutchik's circumplex model, a well-founded psychological model of human emotions. Users can be involved in the creation of the emotional space, through a graphical interactive interface. The development of such semantic space enables new ways of accessing and exploring art collections. The affective categorization model and the emotion detection output are encoded into W3C ontology languages. This gives us the twofold advantage to enable tractable reasoning on detected emotions and related artworks, and to foster the interoperability and integration of tools developed in the Semantic Web and Linked Data community. The proposal has been evaluated against a real-word case study, a dataset of tagged multimedia artworks from the ArsMeteo Italian online collection, and validated through a user study.
Inhalt: Vgl.: doi:10.1016/j.ipm.2015.10.003.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Themenheft "Emotion and sentiment in social and expressive media"
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Inhaltsanalyse
9Xie, H. ; Li, X. ; Wang, T. ; Lau, R.Y.K. ; Wong, T.-L. ; Chen, L. ; Wang, F.L. ; Li, Q.: Incorporating sentiment into tag-based user profiles and resource profiles for personalized search in folksonomy.
In: Information processing and management. 52(2016) no.1, S.61-72.
Abstract: In recent years, there has been a rapid growth of user-generated data in collaborative tagging (a.k.a. folksonomy-based) systems due to the prevailing of Web 2.0 communities. To effectively assist users to find their desired resources, it is critical to understand user behaviors and preferences. Tag-based profile techniques, which model users and resources by a vector of relevant tags, are widely employed in folksonomy-based systems. This is mainly because that personalized search and recommendations can be facilitated by measuring relevance between user profiles and resource profiles. However, conventional measurements neglect the sentiment aspect of user-generated tags. In fact, tags can be very emotional and subjective, as users usually express their perceptions and feelings about the resources by tags. Therefore, it is necessary to take sentiment relevance into account into measurements. In this paper, we present a novel generic framework SenticRank to incorporate various sentiment information to various sentiment-based information for personalized search by user profiles and resource profiles. In this framework, content-based sentiment ranking and collaborative sentiment ranking methods are proposed to obtain sentiment-based personalized ranking. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work of integrating sentiment information to address the problem of the personalized tag-based search in collaborative tagging systems. Moreover, we compare the proposed sentiment-based personalized search with baselines in the experiments, the results of which have verified the effectiveness of the proposed framework. In addition, we study the influences by popular sentiment dictionaries, and SenticNet is the most prominent knowledge base to boost the performance of personalized search in folksonomy.
Inhalt: Vgl.: doi:10.1016/j.ipm.2015.03.001.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Themenheft "Emotion and sentiment in social and expressive media"
Themenfeld: Folksonomies ; Inhaltsanalyse
10Konkova, E. ; MacFarlane, A. ; Göker, A.: Analysing creative image search information needs.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.1, S.13-21.
Abstract: Creative professionals in advertising, marketing, design and journalism search for images to visually represent a concept for their project. The main purpose of this paper is to present search facets derived from an analysis of documents known as briefs, which are widely used in creative industries as requirement documents describing information needs. The briefs specify the type of image required, such as the content and context of use for the image and represent the topic from which the searcher builds an image query. We take three main sources-user image search behaviour, briefs, and image search engine search facets-to examine the search facets for image searching in order to examine the following research question-are search facet schemes for image search engines sufficient for user needs, or is revision needed? We found that there are three main classes of user search facet, which include business, contextual and image related information. The key argument in the paper is that the facet "keyword/tag" is ambiguous and does not support user needs for more generic descriptions to broaden search or specific descriptions to narrow their search-we suggest that a more detailed search facet scheme would be appropriate.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_43_2016_1_b.pdf.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
11Kessel, K.: Who's afraid of the big, bad uktena mster? : subject cataloging for images.
In: VRA Bulletin. 42(2016), no.2 [http://online.vraweb.org/vrab/vol42/iss2/3].
Abstract: This article describes the difference between cataloging images and cataloging books, the obstacles to including subject data in image cataloging records and how these obstacles can be overcome to make image collections more accessible. I call for participants to help create a subject authority reference resource for non-Western art. This article is an expanded and revised version of a presentation for the 2016 Joint ARLIS/VRA conference in Seattle.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
12Hjoerland, B.: Subject (of documents).
In: ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization, ed. by B. Hjoerland. [http://www.isko.org/cyclo/logical_division].
Abstract: This article presents and discusses the concept "subject" or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining "subject" (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development of knowledge.
Inhalt: Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Theoretical views: 2.1 Charles Ammi Cutter (1837-1903), 2.2 S. R. Ranganathan (1892-1972), 2.3 Patrick Wilson (1927-2003), 2.4 "Content oriented" versus "request oriented" views, 2.5 Issues of subjectivity and objectivity, 2.6 The subject knowledge view, 2.7 Other views and definitions; 3. Related concepts: 3.1 Words versus concepts versus subjects, 3.2 Aboutness, 3.3 Topic, 3.4 Isness, 3.5 Ofness, 3.6 Theme.
13Franke-Maier, M. ; Harbeck, M.: Superman = Persepolis = Naruto? : Herausforderungen und Probleme der formalen und inhaltlichen Vielfalt von Comics und Comicforschung für die Regensburger Verbundklassifikation.
In: o-bib: Das offene Bibliotheksjournal. 3(2016) Nr.4, S.243-256.
Abstract: Das populäre Medium Comic hat in den vergangenen Jahren zunehmend Interesse als wissenschaftliches Forschungsobjekt und damit auch als bibliothekarisches Sammlungsgut auf sich gezogen. Bibliotheken stehen vor der Aufgabe, die Primärquellen und vor allem die wissenschaftliche Forschungsliteratur zu Comics inhaltlich zu erschließen und nach wie vor auch systematisch zu präsentieren. Bis vor kurzem fand man in der in Deutschland am weitesten verbreiteten Klassifikation, der im Selbstverständnis wissenschaftsnahen Regensburger Verbundklassifikation, nur Einzelstellen in einzelnen Fachsystematiken und einen größeren Bereich in der Japanologie für das Phänomen Manga. Dieser Zustand war nicht ausreichend für eine differenzierte Aufstellung in Bibliotheken mit entsprechenden Beständen und Schwerpunkten. Der hier präsentierte RVK-Baum für Comics und Comicforschung wird diesem Desiderat gerecht und bietet eine Möglichkeit, Comicbestände adäquat klassifikatorisch abzubilden.
Inhalt: https://www.o-bib.de/article/view/2016H4S186-201. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5282/o-bib/2016H4S186-201. Vortrag, Leipziger Bibliothekskongresses 2016.
Behandelte Form: Cartoons
14Nahotko, M.: Genre groups in knowledge organization.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 54(2016) no.8, S.553-582.
Abstract: The article is an introduction to the development of Andersen's concept of textual tools used in knowledge organization (KO) in light of the theory of genres and activity systems. In particular, the question is based on the concepts of genre connectivity and genre group, in addition to previously established concepts such as genre hierarchy, set, system, and repertoire. Five genre groups used in KO are described. The analysis of groups, systems, and selected genres used in KO is provided, based on the method proposed by Yates and Orlikowski. The aim is to show the genre system as a part of the activity system, and thus as a framework for KO.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2016.1217576.
15Huang, X. ; Soergel, D. ; Klavans, J.L.: Modeling and analyzing the topicality of art images.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.8, S.1616-1644.
Abstract: This study demonstrates an improved conceptual foundation to support well-structured analysis of image topicality. First we present a conceptual framework for analyzing image topicality, explicating the layers, the perspectives, and the topical relevance relationships involved in modeling the topicality of art images. We adapt a generic relevance typology to image analysis by extending it with definitions and relationships specific to the visual art domain and integrating it with schemes of image-text relationships that are important for image subject indexing. We then apply the adapted typology to analyze the topical relevance relationships between 11 art images and 768 image tags assigned by art historians and librarians. The original contribution of our work is the topical structure analysis of image tags that allows the viewer to more easily grasp the content, context, and meaning of an image and quickly tune into aspects of interest; it could also guide both the indexer and the searcher to specify image tags/descriptors in a more systematic and precise manner and thus improve the match between the two parties. An additional contribution is systematically examining and integrating the variety of image-text relationships from a relevance perspective. The paper concludes with implications for relational indexing and social tagging.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23269/abstract.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
16Chen, S.-J. ; Lee, H.-L.: Art images and mental associations : a preliminary exploration.
In: Knowledge organization in the 21st century: between historical patterns and future prospects. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International ISKO Conference 19-22 May 2014, Kraków, Poland. Ed.: Wieslaw Babik. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2014. S.144-151.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol. 14)
Abstract: This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a study that explores mental associations made by novices viewing art images. In a controlled environment, 20 Taiwanese college students responded to the question "What does the painting remind you of?" after viewing each digitized image of 15 oil paintings by a famous Taiwanese artist. Rather than focusing on the representation or interpretation of art, the study attempted to solicit information about how non-experts are stimulated by art. This paper reports on the analysis of participant responses to three of the images, and describes a12-type taxonomy of association emerged from the analysis. While 9 of the types are derived and adapted from facets in the Art & Architecture Thesaurus, three new types - Artistic Influence Association, Reactive Association, and Prototype Association - are discovered. The conclusion briefly discusses both the significance of the findings and the implications for future research.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/aiko_vol_14_2014_21.pdf.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
17Wilson, M.J. ; Wilson, M.L.: ¬A comparison of techniques for measuring sensemaking and learning within participant-generated summaries.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.2, S.291-306.
Abstract: While it is easy to identify whether someone has found a piece of information during a search task, it is much harder to measure how much someone has learned during the search process. Searchers who are learning often exhibit exploratory behaviors, and so current research is often focused on improving support for exploratory search. Consequently, we need effective measures of learning to demonstrate better support for exploratory search. Some approaches, such as quizzes, measure recall when learning from a fixed source of information. This research, however, focuses on techniques for measuring open-ended learning, which often involve analyzing handwritten summaries produced by participants after a task. There are two common techniques for analyzing such summaries: (a) counting facts and statements and (b) judging topic coverage. Both of these techniques, however, can be easily confounded by simple variables such as summary length. This article presents a new technique that measures depth of learning within written summaries based on Bloom's taxonomy (B.S. Bloom & M.D. Engelhart, 1956). This technique was generated using grounded theory and is designed to be less susceptible to such confounding variables. Together, these three categories of measure were compared by applying them to a large collection of written summaries produced in a task-based study, and our results provide insights into each of their strengths and weaknesses. Both fact-to-statement ratio and our own measure of depth of learning were effective while being less affected by confounding variables. Recommendations and clear areas of future work are provided to help continued research into supporting sensemaking and learning.
Themenfeld: Referieren ; Inhaltsanalyse
18Shaw, R.: Information organization and the philosophy of history.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.6, S.1092-1103.
(Advances in information science)
Abstract: The philosophy of history can help articulate problems relevant to information organization. One such problem is "aboutness": How do texts relate to the world? In response to this problem, philosophers of history have developed theories of colligation describing how authors bind together phenomena under organizing concepts. Drawing on these ideas, I present a theory of subject analysis that avoids the problematic illusion of an independent "landscape" of subjects. This theory points to a broad vision of the future of information organization and some specific challenges to be met.
19Volpers, H.: Inhaltsanalyse.
In: Handbuch Methoden der Bibliotheks- und Informationswissenschaft: Bibliotheks-, Benutzerforschung, Informationsanalyse. Hrsg.: K. Umlauf, S. Fühles-Ubach u. M.S. Seadle. Berlin : De Gruyter Saur, 2013. S.412-424.
Abstract: Der Begriff Inhaltsanalyse wird je nach wissenschaftlicher Provenienz oder Bedeutungszusammenhang unterschiedlich definiert: Innerhalb der bibliothekarischen Praxis wird die Erfassung des Inhaltes eines vorliegenden Dokumentes für die Zwecke der Indexierung als Inhaltsanalyse bezeichnet, philologische Textinterpretationen oder sprachwissenschaftliche Textanalysen werden gelegentlich als Inhaltsanalysen etikettiert, ebenso die Interpretation von Interviewaussagen in der Psychologie und qualitativen Sozialforschung. Der vorliegende Beitrag bezieht sich explizit auf die sozialwissenschaftliche Methode der systematischen Inhaltsanalyse. Allerdings ist auch durch diese Eingrenzung noch keine hinreichende definitorische Klarheit geschaffen, da eine Unterscheidung in qualitative und quantitative Verfahren vorzunehmen ist.
20Raieli, R.: ¬The semantic hole : enthusiasm and caution around multimedia information retrieval.
In: Knowledge organization. 39(2012) no.1, S.13-22.
Abstract: This paper centres on the tools for the management of new digital documents, which are not only textual, but also visual-video, audio or multimedia in the full sense. Among the aims is to demonstrate that operating within the terms of generic Information Retrieval through textual language only is limiting, and it is instead necessary to consider ampler criteria, such as those of MultiMedia Information Retrieval, according to which, every type of digital document can be analyzed and searched by the proper elements of language for its proper nature. MMIR is presented as the organic complex of the systems of Text Retrieval, Visual Retrieval, Video Retrieval, and Audio Retrieval, each of which has an approach to information management that handles the concrete textual, visual, audio, or video content of the documents directly, here defined as content-based. In conclusion, the limits of this content-based objective access to documents is underlined. The discrepancy known as the semantic gap is that which occurs between semantic-interpretive access and content-based access. Finally, the integration of these conceptions is explained, gathering and composing the merits and the advantages of each of the approaches and of the systems to access to information.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_39_2012_1_b.pdf.
Anmerkung: Bezugnahme auf: Enser, P.G.B.: Visual image retrieval. In: Annual review of information science and technology. 42(2008), S.3-42.
Themenfeld: Multimedia ; Inhaltsanalyse