Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Kang, X. ; Wu, Y. ; Ren, W.: Toward action comprehension for searching : mining actionable intents in query entities.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.2, S.143-157.
Abstract: Understanding search engine users' intents has been a popular study in information retrieval, which directly affects the quality of retrieved information. One of the fundamental problems in this field is to find a connection between the entity in a query and the potential intents of the users, the latter of which would further reveal important information for facilitating the users' future actions. In this article, we present a novel research method for mining the actionable intents for search users, by generating a ranked list of the potentially most informative actions based on a massive pool of action samples. We compare different search strategies and their combinations for retrieving the action pool and develop three criteria for measuring the informativeness of the selected action samples, that is, the significance of an action sample within the pool, the representativeness of an action sample for the other candidate samples, and the diverseness of an action sample with respect to the selected actions. Our experiment, based on the Action Mining (AM) query entity data set from the Actionable Knowledge Graph (AKG) task at NTCIR-13, suggests that the proposed approach is effective in generating an informative and early-satisfying ranking of potential actions for search users.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24220.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Suchtaktik
2Sbaffi, L. ; Zhao, C.: Modeling the online health information seeking process : information channel selection among university students.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.2, S.196-207.
Abstract: This study investigates the influence of individual and information characteristics on university students' information channel selection (that is, search engines, social question & answer sites, online health websites, and social networking sites) of online health information (OHI) for three different types of search tasks (factual, exploratory, and personal experience). Quantitative data were collected via an online questionnaire distributed to students on various postgraduate programs at a large UK university. In total, 291 responses were processed for descriptive statistics, Principal Component Analysis, and Poisson regression. Search engines are the most frequently used among the four channels of information discussed in this study. Credibility, ease of use, style, usefulness, and recommendation are the key factors influencing users' judgments of information characteristics (explaining over 62% of the variance). Poisson regression indicated that individuals' channel experience, age, student status, health status, and triangulation (comparing sources) as well as style, credibility, usefulness, and recommendation are substantive predictors for channel selection of OHI.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24230.
3Sa, N. ; Yuan, X.J.: Examining users' partial query modification patterns in voice search.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.3, S.251-263.
Abstract: This article investigates how to improve the effectiveness of voice search systems. Earlier research found that participants employed voice search much less frequently than keyboard search. The main reasons that participants disliked voice search are system mistakes and the inability to modify queries. In keyboard search, query reformulation is facilitated by partial query modification, which is not supported by most of the current voice search systems. Consequently, users need to speak the complete query in voice search even with only minor changes. This article focuses on examining partial query modification during voice search through a Wizard of Oz user experiment. It examines if users would prefer partial query modification and how they perform it in voice search. Thirty-two participants participated in the experiment. Results indicated that when given the opportunity, the users performed more partial query modifications than complete queries. Common partial query modification strategies and patterns emerged from the experiment. The results can be used to improve the voice search system design and benefit the research community in general. System implications and future work were discussed.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24238.
4Berget, G. ; MacFarlane, A.: What Is known about the impact of impairments on information seeking and searching?.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.5, S.596-611.
Abstract: Information seeking and access are essential for users in all walks of life, from addressing personal needs such as finding flights to locating information needed to complete work tasks. Over the past decade or so, the general needs of people with impairments have increasingly been recognized as something to be addressed, an issue embedded both in international treaties and in state legislation. The same tendency can be found in research, where a growing number of user studies including people with impairments have been conducted. The purpose of these studies is typically to uncover potential barriers for access to information, especially in the context of inaccessible search user interfaces. This literature review provides an overview of research on the information seeking and searching of users with impairments. The aim is to provide an overview to both researchers and practitioners who work with any of the user groups identified. Some diagnoses are relatively well represented in the literature (for instance, visual impairment), but there is very little work in other areas (for instance, autism) and in some cases no work at all (for instance, aphasia). Gaps are identified in the research, and suggestions are made regarding areas where further research is needed.
6Huurdeman, H.C. ; Kamps, J.: Designing multistage search systems to support the information seeking process.
In: Understanding and improving information search [Vgl. unter: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341747751_Designing_Multistage_Search_Systems_to_Support_the_Information_Seeking_Process].
Abstract: Due to the advances in information retrieval in the past decades, search engines have become extremely efficient at acquiring useful sources in response to a user's query. However, for more prolonged and complex information seeking tasks, these search engines are not as well suited. During complex information seeking tasks, various stages may occur, which imply varying support needs for users. However, the implications of theoretical information seeking models for concrete search user interfaces (SUI) design are unclear, both at the level of the individual features and of the whole interface. Guidelines and design patterns for concrete SUIs, on the other hand, provide recommendations for feature design, but these are separated from their role in the information seeking process. This chapter addresses the question of how to design SUIs with enhanced support for the macro-level process, first by reviewing previous research. Subsequently, we outline a framework for complex task support, which explicitly connects the temporal development of complex tasks with different levels of support by SUI features. This is followed by a discussion of concrete system examples which include elements of the three dimensions of our framework in an exploratory search and sensemaking context. Moreover, we discuss the connection of navigation with the search-oriented framework. In our final discussion and conclusion, we provide recommendations for designing more holistic SUIs which potentially evolve along with a user's information seeking process.
Inhalt: Vgl.: DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-38825-6_7.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; OPAC
7Palmiero, M. ; Giusberti, F. ; Gambetti, E. ; Piccardi, L. (Hrsg.): Nori, R.: Web searching and navigation : age, intelligence, and familiarity.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.8, S.902-915.
Abstract: In using the Internet to solve everyday problems, older adults tend to find fewer correct answers compared to younger adults. Some authors have argued that these differences could be explained by age-related decline. The present study aimed to analyze the relationship between web-searching navigation and users' age, considering the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and frequency of Internet and personal computer use. The intent was to identify differences due to age and not to other variables (that is, cognitive decline, expertise with the tool). Eighteen students (18-30?years) and 18 older adults (60-75?years) took part in the experiment. Inclusion criteria were the frequent use of computers and a web-searching activity; the older adults performed the Mini-Mental State Examination to exclude cognitive impairment. Participants were requested to perform the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test 2nd ed. to measure their IQ level, and nine everyday web-searching tasks of differing complexity. The results showed that older participants spent more time on solving tasks than younger participants, but with the same accuracy as young people. Furthermore, nonverbal IQ improved performance in terms of time among the older participants. Age did not influence web-searching behavior in users with normal expertise and intelligence.
Themenfeld: Internet ; Suchtaktik
8Liu, J. ; Zhang, X.: ¬The role of domain knowledge in document selection from search results.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.11, S.1236-1247.
Abstract: It is a frequently seen scenario that when people are not familiar with their search topics, they use a simple keyword search, which leads to a large amount of search results in multiple pages. This makes it difficult for users to pick relevant documents, especially given that they are not knowledgeable of the topics. To explore how systems can better help users find relevant documents from search results, the current research analyzed document selection behaviors of users with different levels of domain knowledge (DK). Data were collected in a laboratory study with 35 participants each searching on four tasks in the genomics domain. The results show that users with high and low DK levels selected different sets of documents to view; those high in DK read more documents and gave higher relevance ratings for the viewed documents than those low in DK did. Users with low DK tended to select documents ranking toward the top of the search result lists, and those with high in DK tended to also select documents ranking down the search result lists. The findings help design search systems that can personalize search results to users with different levels of DK.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24199
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Benutzerstudien
9Vuong, T. ; Saastamoinen, M. ; Jacucci, G. ; Ruotsalo, T.: Understanding user behavior in naturalistic information search tasks.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.11, S.1248-1261.
Abstract: Understanding users' search behavior has largely relied on the information available from search engine logs, which provide limited information about the contextual factors affecting users' behavior. Consequently, questions such as how users' intentions, task goals, and substances of the users' tasks affect search behavior, as well as what triggers information needs, remain largely unanswered. We report an experiment in which naturalistic information search behavior was captured by analyzing 24/7 continuous recordings of information on participants' computer screens. Written task diaries describing the participants' tasks were collected and used as real-life task contexts for further categorization. All search tasks were extracted and classified under various task categories according to users' intentions, task goals, and substances of the tasks. We investigated the effect of different task categories on three behavioral factors: search efforts, content-triggers, and application context. Our results suggest four findings: (i) Search activity is integrally associated with the users' creative processes. The content users have seen prior to searching more often triggers search, and is used as a query, within creative tasks. (ii) Searching within intellectual and creative tasks is more time-intensive, while search activity occurring as a part of daily routine tasks is associated with more frequent searching within a search task. (iii) Searching is more often induced from utility applications in tasks demanding a degree of intellectual effort. (iv) Users' leisure information-seeking activity is occurring inherently within social media services or comes from social communication platforms. The implications of our findings for information access and management systems are discussed.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24201.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Benutzerstudien
10Sachse, J.: ¬The influence of snippet length on user behavior in mobile web search.
In: Aslib journal of information management. 71(2019) no.3, S.325-343.
Abstract: Purpose Web search is more and more moving into mobile contexts. However, screen size of mobile devices is limited and search engine result pages face a trade-off between offering informative snippets and optimal use of space. One factor clearly influencing this trade-off is snippet length. The purpose of this paper is to find out what snippet size to use in mobile web search. Design/methodology/approach For this purpose, an eye-tracking experiment was conducted showing participants search interfaces with snippets of one, three or five lines on a mobile device to analyze 17 dependent variables. In total, 31 participants took part in the study. Each of the participants solved informational and navigational tasks. Findings Results indicate a strong influence of page fold on scrolling behavior and attention distribution across search results. Regardless of query type, short snippets seem to provide too little information about the result, so that search performance and subjective measures are negatively affected. Long snippets of five lines lead to better performance than medium snippets for navigational queries, but to worse performance for informational queries. Originality/value Although space in mobile search is limited, this study shows that longer snippets improve usability and user experience. It further emphasizes that page fold plays a stronger role in mobile than in desktop search for attention distribution.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1108/AJIM-07-2018-0182.
Anmerkung: Beitag in einem Special Issue: Information Science in the German-speaking Countries
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Suchtaktik
11Hopkins, M.E. ; Zavalina, O.L.: Evaluating physicians' serendipitous knowledge discovery in online discovery systems : a new approach.
In: Aslib journal of information management. 71(2019) no.6, S.755-772.
Abstract: Purpose A new approach to investigate serendipitous knowledge discovery (SKD) of health information is developed and tested to evaluate the information flow-serendipitous knowledge discovery (IF-SKD) model. The purpose of this paper is to determine the degree to which IF-SKD reflects physicians' information behaviour in a clinical setting and explore how the information system, Spark, designed to support physicians' SKD, meets its goals. Design/methodology/approach The proposed pre-experimental study design employs an adapted version of the McCay-Peet's (2013) and McCay-Peet et al.'s (2015) serendipitous digital environment (SDE) questionnaire research tool to address the complexity associated with defining the way in which SKD is understood and applied in system design. To test the IF-SKD model, the new data analysis approach combining confirmatory factor analysis, data imputation and Monte Carlo simulations was developed. Findings The piloting of the proposed novel analysis approach demonstrated that small sample information behaviour survey data can be meaningfully examined using a confirmatory factor analysis technique. Research limitations/implications This method allows to improve the reliability in measuring SKD and the generalisability of findings. Originality/value This paper makes an original contribution to developing and refining methods and tools of research into information-system-supported serendipitous discovery of information by health providers.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1108/AJIM-02-2019-0045.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Special Issue: Innovative Methods in Health Information Behaviour Research.
12Greyson, D.: Information triangulation : a complex and agentic everyday information practice.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.7, S.869-878.
Abstract: In contemporary urban settings, information seekers may face challenges assessing and making use of the large quantity of information to which they have access. Such challenges may be particularly acute when laypeople are considering specialized or technical information pertaining to topics over which knowledge is contested. Within a constructivist grounded theory study of the health information practices of 39 young parents in urban Canada, a complex practice of information triangulation was observed. Triangulation comprised an iterative process of seeking, assessment, and sense-making, and typically resulted in a decision or action. This paper examines the emergent concept of information triangulation in everyday life, using data from the young parent study. Triangulation processes in this study could be classified as one of four types, and functioned as an exercise of agency in the face of structures of expertise and exclusion. Although triangulation has long been described and discussed as a practice among scientific researchers wishing to validate and enrich their data, it has rarely been identified as an everyday practice in information behavior research. Future investigations should consider the use of information triangulation for other types of information, including by other populations and in other areas of contested knowledge.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/asi.24012.
13Wu, I.-C. ; Vakkari, P.: Effects of subject-oriented visualization tools on search by novices and intermediates.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.12, S.1428-1445.
Abstract: This study explores how user subject knowledge influences search task processes and outcomes, as well as how search behavior is influenced by subject-oriented information visualization (IV) tools. To enable integrated searches, the proposed WikiMap + integrates search functions and IV tools (i.e., a topic network and hierarchical topic tree) and gathers information from Wikipedia pages and Google Search results. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed interfaces, we design subject-oriented tasks and adopt extended evaluation measures. We recruited 48 novices and 48 knowledgeable users, that is, intermediates, for the evaluation. Our results show that novices using the proposed interface demonstrate better search performance than intermediates using Wikipedia. We therefore conclude that our tools help close the gap between novices and intermediates in information searches. The results also show that intermediates can take advantage of the search tool by leveraging the IV tools to browse subtopics, and formulate better queries with less effort. We conclude that embedding the IV and the search tools in the interface can result in different search behavior but improved task performance. We provide implications to design search systems to include IV features adapted to user levels of subject knowledge to help them achieve better task performance.
Themenfeld: Visualisierung ; Suchtaktik
14Bilal, D. ; Gwizdka, J.: Children's query types and reformulations in Google search.
In: Information processing and management. 54(2018) no.6, S.1022-1041.
Abstract: We investigated the searching behaviors of twenty-four children in grades 6, 7, and 8 (ages 11-13) in finding information on three types of search tasks in Google. Children conducted 72 search sessions and issued 150 queries. Children's phrase- and question-like queries combined were much more prevalent than keyword queries (70% vs. 30%, respectively). Fifty two percent of the queries were reformulations (33 sessions). We classified children's query reformulation types into five classes based on the taxonomy by Liu et al. (2010). We found that most query reformulations were by Substitution and Specialization, and that children hardly repeated queries. We categorized children's queries by task facets and examined the way they expressed these facets in their query formulations and reformulations. Oldest children tended to target the general topic of search tasks in their queries most frequently, whereas younger children expressed one of the two facets more often. We assessed children's achieved task outcomes using the search task outcomes measure we developed. Children were mostly more successful on the fact-finding and fully self-generated task and partially successful on the research-oriented task. Query type, reformulation type, achieved task outcomes, and expressing task facets varied by task type and grade level. There was no significant effect of query length in words or of the number of queries issued on search task outcomes. The study findings have implications for human intervention, digital literacy, search task literacy, as well as for system intervention to support children's query formulation and reformulation during interaction with Google.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2018.06.008.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Suchmaschinen
15Russell-Rose, T. ; Chamberlain, J. ; Azzopardi, L.: Information retrieval in the workplace : a comparison of professional search practices.
In: Information processing and management. 54(2018) no.6, S.1042-1057.
Abstract: Legal researchers, recruitment professionals, healthcare information professionals, and patent analysts all undertake work tasks where search forms a core part of their duties. In these instances, the search task is often complex and time-consuming and requires specialist expertise to identify relevant documents and insights within large domain-specific repositories and collections. Several studies have been made investigating the search practices of professionals such as these, but few have attempted to directly compare their professional practices and so it remains unclear to what extent insights and approaches from one domain can be applied to another. In this paper we describe the results of a survey of a purposive sample of 108 legal researchers, 64 recruitment professionals and 107 healthcare information professionals. Their responses are compared with results from a previous survey of 81 patent analysts. The survey investigated their search practices and preferences, the types of functionality they value, and their requirements for future information retrieval systems. The results reveal that these professions share many fundamental needs and face similar challenges. In particular a continuing preference to formulate queries as Boolean expressions, the need to manage, organise and re-use search strategies and results and an ambivalence toward the use of relevance ranking. The results stress the importance of recall and coverage for the healthcare and patent professionals, while precision and recency were more important to the legal and recruitment professionals. The results also highlight the need to ensure that search systems give confidence to the professional searcher and so trust, explainability and accountability remains a significant challenge when developing such systems. The findings suggest that translational research between the different areas could benefit professionals across domains.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2018.07.003.
16Wildemuth, B.M. ; Kelly, D, ; Boettcher, E. ; Moore, E. ; Dimitrova, G.: Examining the impact of domain and cognitive complexity on query formulation and reformulation.
In: Information processing and management. 54(2018) no.3, S.433-450.
Abstract: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate an existing set of search tasks in terms of their effectiveness as part of a "shared infrastructure" for conducting interactive IR research. Twenty search tasks that varied in their cognitive complexity and domain were assigned to 47 study participants; the 3,101 moves used to complete those tasks were then analyzed in terms of frequency of each type of move and the sequential patterns they formed. The cognitive complexity of the tasks influenced the number of moves used to complete the tasks, with the most complex (i.e., Create) tasks requiring more moves than tasks at other levels of complexity. Across the four domains, the Commerce tasks elicited more search moves per search. When sequences of moves were analyzed, seven patterns were identified; some of these patterns were associated with particular task characteristics. The findings suggest that search tasks can be designed to elicit particular types of search behaviors and, thus, allow researchers to focus attention on particular aspects of IR interactions.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2018.01.009.
17Tamine, L. ; Chouquet, C.: On the impact of domain expertise on query formulation, relevance assessment and retrieval performance in clinical settings.
In: Information processing and management. 53(2017) no.2, S.332-350.
Abstract: The large volumes of medical information available on the web may provide answers for a wide range of users attempting to solve health-related problems. While experts generally utilize reliable resources for diagnosis search and professional development, novices utilize different (social) web resources to obtain information that helps them manage their health or the health of people who they care for. A diverse number of related search topics address clinical diagnosis, advice searching, information sharing, connecting with experts, etc. This paper focuses on the extent to which expertise can impact clinical query formulation, document relevance assessment and retrieval performance in the context of tailoring retrieval models and systems to experts vs. non-experts. The results show that medical domain expertise 1) plays an important role in the lexical representations of information needs; 2) significantly influences the perception of relevance even among users with similar levels of expertise and 3) reinforces the idea that a single ground truth does not exist, thereby leading to the variability of system rankings with respect to the level of user's expertise. The findings of this study presents opportunities for the design of personalized health-related IR systems, but also for providing insights about the evaluation of such systems.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030645731630303X [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2016.11.004].
18Sanchiza, M. ; Chinb, J. ; Chevaliera, A. ; Fuc, W.T. ; Amadieua, F. ; Hed, J.: Searching for information on the web : impact of cognitive aging, prior domain knowledge and complexity of the search problems.
In: Information processing and management. 53(2017) no.1, S.281-294.
Abstract: This study focuses on the impact of age, prior domain knowledge and cognitive abilities on performance, query production and navigation strategies during information searching. Twenty older adults and nineteen young adults had to answer 12 information search problems of varying nature within two domain knowledge: health and manga. In each domain, participants had to perform two simple fact-finding problems (keywords provided and answer directly accessible on the search engine results page), two difficult fact-finding problems (keywords had to be inferred) and two open-ended information search problems (multiple answers possible and navigation necessary). Results showed that prior domain knowledge helped older adults improve navigation (i.e. reduced the number of webpages visited and thus decreased the feeling of disorientation), query production and reformulation (i.e. they formulated semantically more specific queries, and they inferred a greater number of new keywords).
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306457316301923 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2016.09.003].
Themenfeld: Internet ; Suchtaktik
19Ren, P. ; Chen, Z. ; Ma, J. ; Zhang, Z. ; Si, L. ; Wang, S.: Detecting temporal patterns of user queries.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.113-128.
Abstract: Query classification is an important part of exploring the characteristics of web queries. Existing studies are mainly based on Broder's classification scheme and classify user queries into navigational, informational, and transactional categories according to users' information needs. In this article, we present a novel classification scheme from the perspective of queries' temporal patterns. Queries' temporal patterns are inherent time series patterns of the search volumes of queries that reflect the evolution of the popularity of a query over time. By analyzing the temporal patterns of queries, search engines can more deeply understand the users' search intents and thus improve performance. Furthermore, we extract three groups of features based on the queries' search volume time series and use a support vector machine (SVM) to automatically detect the temporal patterns of user queries. Extensive experiments on the Million Query Track data sets of the Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23578/full.
20Rowley, J. ; Johnson, F. ; Sbaffi, L.: Gender as an influencer of online health information-seeking and evaluation behavior.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.36-47.
Abstract: This article contributes to the growing body of research that explores the significance of context in health information behavior. Specifically, through the lens of trust judgments, it demonstrates that gender is a determinant of the information evaluation process. A questionnaire-based survey collected data from adults regarding the factors that influence their judgment of the trustworthiness of online health information. Both men and women identified credibility, recommendation, ease of use, and brand as being of importance in their trust judgments. However, women also take into account style, while men eschew this for familiarity. In addition, men appear to be more concerned with the comprehensiveness and accuracy of the information, the ease with which they can access it, and its familiarity, whereas women demonstrate greater interest in cognition, such as the ease with which they can read and understand the information. These gender differences are consistent with the demographic data, which suggest that: women consult more types of sources than men; men are more likely to be searching with respect to a long-standing health complaint; and, women are more likely than men to use tablets in their health information seeking. Recommendations for further research to better inform practice are offered.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23597/full.