Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Brown, L.K. ; Veinot, T.C.: Information behavior and social control : toward an understanding of conflictual information behavior in families managing chronic illness.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 72(2021) no.1, S.66-82.
Abstract: The relationship between information and control interests social scientists; however, much prior work has focused on organizations rather than families. Work on interactive information behaviors has also focused on organizations and on collaboration rather than conflict. Therefore, in families managing chronic illness, we investigated information behaviors in the context of health-related social control and the impact of control on patient health behavior. We conducted a qualitative analysis of interviews with 38 family groups and 97 individuals over 2 years. Findings revealed conflictual information behavior, which led to competitions for control and influence between family members and patients. In response to perceived patient health behavior-related problems, family members sought, shared, and used information for social control of patients by enforcing norms, leveraging expertise, performing surveillance, and structuring the environment. These behaviors clashed with patients' interests and perspectives drawn from their own information acquisition. Patients responded by assessing family-presented information and using information to resist or appease norm enforcement, refute or agree with expertise, and permit or block surveillance. Over time, some patient behaviors changed; alternatively, patients blocked family access to information about themselves, or family members retreated. The results challenge presumptions of benefit and harmony that have characterized much prior information behavior research.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24362.
2Vegt, A. van der ; Zuccon, G. ; Koopman, B.: Do better search engines really equate to better clinical decisions? : If not, why not?.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 72(2021) no.2, S.141-155.
Abstract: Previous research has found that improved search engine effectiveness-evaluated using a batch-style approach-does not always translate to significant improvements in user task performance; however, these prior studies focused on simple recall and precision-based search tasks. We investigated the same relationship, but for realistic, complex search tasks required in clinical decision making. One hundred and nine clinicians and final year medical students answered 16 clinical questions. Although the search engine did improve answer accuracy by 20 percentage points, there was no significant difference when participants used a more effective, state-of-the-art search engine. We also found that the search engine effectiveness difference, identified in the lab, was diminished by around 70% when the search engines were used with real users. Despite the aid of the search engine, half of the clinical questions were answered incorrectly. We further identified the relative contribution of search engine effectiveness to the overall end task success. We found that the ability to interpret documents correctly was a much more important factor impacting task success. If these findings are representative, information retrieval research may need to reorient its emphasis towards helping users to better understand information, rather than just finding it for them.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24398.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Retrievalstudien
3Lee, G.E. ; Sun, A.: Understanding the stability of medical concept embeddings.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 72(2021) no.3, S.346-356.
Abstract: Frequency is one of the major factors for training quality word embeddings. Several studies have recently discussed the stability of word embeddings in general domain and suggested factors influencing the stability. In this work, we conduct a detailed analysis on the stability of concept embeddings in medical domain, particularly in relations with concept frequency. The analysis reveals the surprising high stability of low-frequency concepts: low-frequency (<100) concepts have the same high stability as high-frequency (>1,000) concepts. To develop a deeper understanding of this finding, we propose a new factor, the noisiness of context words, which influences the stability of medical concept embeddings regardless of high or low frequency. We evaluate the proposed factor by showing the linear correlation with the stability of medical concept embeddings. The correlations are clear and consistent with various groups of medical concepts. Based on the linear relations, we make suggestions on ways to adjust the noisiness of context words for the improvement of stability. Finally, we demonstrate that the linear relation of the proposed factor extends to the word embedding stability in general domain.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24411.
4Widmann, V.: ¬Die Sache mit der Menschenwürde und dem Wert des Lebens.[16. Mai 2020].
Abstract: Die Diskussion um Menschenwürde und Lebensschutz prosperiert in der Corona-Krise. Die Feuilletons renommierter Zeitschriften sind der Austragungsort, Koryphäen aus Juristerei, Philosophie und Politik die Protagonisten der Debatte.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://heise.de/-4720866.
Wissenschaftsfach: Philosophie ; Medizin
5Dirnagl, U.: Kulturwandel in der Biomedizin.
In: Spektrum der Wissenschaft. 2020, H.10, S.37-43.
Abstract: Biomedizinische Studien haben sich oft als methodisch unzuverlässig herausgestellt, was ihre Ergebnisse in Zweifel zieht. Viele Wissenschaftler sehen das Fach deshalb in einer Krise. Ein Umdenken ist nötig - und hat bereits eingesetzt.
Wissenschaftsfach: Medizin ; Wissenschaftstheorie
6Sbaffi, L. ; Zhao, C.: Modeling the online health information seeking process : information channel selection among university students.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.2, S.196-207.
Abstract: This study investigates the influence of individual and information characteristics on university students' information channel selection (that is, search engines, social question & answer sites, online health websites, and social networking sites) of online health information (OHI) for three different types of search tasks (factual, exploratory, and personal experience). Quantitative data were collected via an online questionnaire distributed to students on various postgraduate programs at a large UK university. In total, 291 responses were processed for descriptive statistics, Principal Component Analysis, and Poisson regression. Search engines are the most frequently used among the four channels of information discussed in this study. Credibility, ease of use, style, usefulness, and recommendation are the key factors influencing users' judgments of information characteristics (explaining over 62% of the variance). Poisson regression indicated that individuals' channel experience, age, student status, health status, and triangulation (comparing sources) as well as style, credibility, usefulness, and recommendation are substantive predictors for channel selection of OHI.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24230.
7Zhang, J. ; Chen, Y. ; Zhao, Y. ; Wolfram, D. ; Ma, F.: Public health and social media : a study of Zika virus-related posts on Yahoo! Answers.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.3, S.282-299.
Abstract: This study investigates the content of questions and responses about the Zika virus on Yahoo! Answers as a recent example of how public concerns regarding an international health issue are reflected in social media. We investigate the contents of posts about the Zika virus on Yahoo! Answers, identify and reveal subject patterns about the Zika virus, and analyze the temporal changes of the revealed subject topics over 4 defined periods of the Zika virus outbreak. Multidimensional scaling analysis, temporal analysis, and inferential statistical analysis approaches were used in the study. A resulting 2-layer Zika virus schema, and term connections and relationships are presented. The results indicate that consumers' concerns changed over the 4 defined periods. Consumers paid more attention to the basic information about the Zika virus, and the prevention and protection from the Zika virus at the beginning of the outbreak of the Zika virus. During the later periods, consumers became more interested in the role that the government and health organizations played in the public health emergency.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24245.
8Semaan, B. ; Goggins, S. (Hrsg.): Introne, J. ; Erickson, I.: Designing sustainable online support : examining the effects of design change in 49 online health support communities.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.4, S.379-394.
Abstract: Online social support communities can significantly improve health outcomes for individuals living with disease. Although they are well studied in the literature, little research examines how sociotechnical design changes influence the sustainability of support communities for different medical conditions. We compare the impact of a single design change on 49 disease-specific health support forums hosted on the WebMD platform, a popular online health information service. A statistical analysis showcases changes in posting patterns before and after the design intervention; a subsequent interpretive examination of forum content reveals how the design change affected members' perceived affordances of the platform. Our findings suggest that, despite differences between communities, the design change triggered a common set of cascading effects: it made it difficult for core users to create and maintain relationships, that led them to ultimately leave the site, and, in turn, reduced the activity drawing newcomers to the platform. Using these findings, we argue that the design of sustainable and robust online communities must account for systemic, sociotechnical dynamics.
9Fox, G.: "To protect my health or to protect my health privacy?" : a mixed-methods investigation of the privacy paradox.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.9, S.1015-1029.
(Special issue: Information privacy in the digital age)
Abstract: This paper examines the role of privacy in the health context by investigating the influence of privacy concerns and perceived benefits on individuals' acceptance of health technologies used by healthcare providers and their own adoption of mobile health technologies. The study adopts a two-stage sequential mixed-methods design. The first stage is a quantitative survey of 447 citizens from two countries. The second stage involves 50 qualitative interviews which further untangle the roles of privacy concern and benefits. The integrated findings provide evidence that a privacy paradox exists. While individuals continue to express a high desire for privacy, their consideration of the benefits and privacy concerns prior to adoption is largely skewed toward the benefits, due to a lack of privacy knowledge, emphasis on immediate gratification, overestimation of the benefits, and underestimation of the risks. The study further extends the privacy calculus theory to the health context and acknowledges the factors impacting this comparison of benefits and privacy concerns prior to and postadoption of a new technology. The study provides actionable insights for practice, highlighting the importance of privacy education to foster awareness and control mechanisms to negate the potential negative effects of privacy concern.
10Veinot, T.C. (Hrsg.): Costello, K.L.: ¬A spectrum of approaches to health information interaction : from avoidance to verification.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.8, S.871-886.
Abstract: People respond to illness in a range of ways, and take different approaches to engaging with health information throughout the course of their illness. This study describes and explains the variety of approaches to health information interactions made by patients on hemodialysis. Ethnographic observations (156?hours) were conducted in three hemodialysis clinics, and semistructured interviews about health information were held with 28 patients. Demographic data were collected. Data were analyzed qualitatively. We found a spectrum of five approaches to health information: avoiders , who close themselves off from health information; receivers , who encounter information in the dialysis clinic but do not seek it out; askers , who only pose questions about health to their healthcare providers but otherwise do not seek; seekers , who actively look for health information both in and out of the clinic; and verifiers , who seek information and triangulate it among multiple sources. Trust in healthcare providers and coping sociality differed across approaches. The findings indicate that health information should be provided to patients using strategies tailored to their preferences and existing approaches to information interaction.
11Kudlow, P. ; Dziadyk, D.B. ; Rutledge, A. ; Shachak, A. ; Eysenbach, G.: ¬The citation advantage of promoted articles in a cross-publisher distribution platform : a 12-month randomized controlled trial.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.10, S.1257-1274.
Abstract: There is currently a paucity of evidence-based strategies that have been shown to increase citations of peer-reviewed articles following their publication. We conducted a 12-month randomized controlled trial to examine whether the promotion of article links in an online cross-publisher distribution platform (TrendMD) affects citations. In all, 3,200 articles published in 64 peer-reviewed journals across eight subject areas were block randomized at the subject level to either the TrendMD group (n = 1,600) or the control group (n = 1,600) of the study. Our primary outcome compares the mean citations of articles randomized to TrendMD versus control after 12 months. Articles randomized to TrendMD showed a 50% increase in mean citations relative to control at 12 months. The difference in mean citations at 12 months for articles randomized to TrendMD versus control was 5.06, 95% confidence interval [2.87, 7.25], was statistically significant (p?.001) and found in three of eight subject areas. At 6 months following publication, articles randomized to TrendMD showed a smaller, yet statistically significant (p = .005), 21% increase in mean citations, relative to control. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial to demonstrate how an intervention can be used to increase citations of peer-reviewed articles after they have been published.
12Zhang, Y. ; Li, X. ; Fan, W.: User adoption of physician's replies in an online health community : an empirical study.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.10, S.1179-1191.
Abstract: Online health question-and-answer consultation with physicians is becoming a common phenomenon. However, it is unclear how users identify the most satisfying reply. Based on the dual-process theory of knowledge adoption, we developed a conceptual model and empirical method to study which factors influence adoption of a reply. We extracted 6 variables for argument quality (Ease of understanding, Relevance, Completeness, Objectivity, Timeliness, Structure) and 4 for source credibility (Physician's online experience, Physician's offline expertise, Hospital location, Hospital level). The empirical results indicate that both central and peripheral routes affect user's adoption of a response. Physician's offline expertise negatively affects user's adoption decision, while physician's online experience positively affects it; this effect is positively moderated by user involvement.
13Choi, W.: Older adults' credibility assessment of online health information : an exploratory study using an extended typology of web credibility.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.11, S.1295-1307.
Abstract: Credibility assessment is a crucial component in the process of people's health information seeking, especially in the web context. Finding "credible" health information from a plethora of information on the web may be more challenging for older adults, who have relatively less experience with the Internet. This article reports on the findings of an exploratory study of older adults' credibility assessments of online health information. The data collected through semistructured interviews with 21 older adult Internet users in the United States were analyzed based on the extended typology of web credibility (Choi & Stvilia, 2015, Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 66, 2399-2414). The findings of the study revealed that older adults paid closer attention to operator-related credibility cues and heuristics when judging the credibility of health information on the web, followed by content- and design-related ones. Also, the findings suggest that participants who were younger and used the Internet more frequently employed a wider variety of cues and heuristics to evaluate the credibility of online health information. Based on these findings, both theoretical and practical implications of the research and future research directions are discussed.
14Zou, J. ; Thoma, G. ; Antani, S.: Unified deep neural network for segmentation and labeling of multipanel biomedical figures.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.11, S.1327-1340.
Abstract: Recent efforts in biomedical visual question answering (VQA) research rely on combined information gathered from the image content and surrounding text supporting the figure. Biomedical journals are a rich source of information for such multimodal content indexing. For multipanel figures in these journals, it is critical to develop automatic figure panel splitting and label recognition algorithms to associate individual panels with text metadata in the figure caption and the body of the article. Challenges in this task include large variations in figure panel layout, label location, size, contrast to background, and so on. In this work, we propose a deep convolutional neural network, which splits the panels and recognizes the panel labels in a single step. Visual features are extracted from several layers at various depths of the backbone neural network and organized to form a feature pyramid. These features are fed into classification and regression networks to generate candidates of panels and their labels. These candidates are merged to create the final panel segmentation result through a beam search algorithm. We evaluated the proposed algorithm on the ImageCLEF data set and achieved better performance than the results reported in the literature. In order to thoroughly investigate the proposed algorithm, we also collected and annotated our own data set of 10,642 figures. The experiments, trained on 9,642 figures and evaluated on the remaining 1,000 figures, show that combining panel splitting and panel label recognition mutually benefit each other.
15Xie, B. ; He, D. ; Mercer, T. ; Wang, Y. ; Wu, D. ; Fleischmann, K.R. ; Zhang, Y. ; Yoder, L.H. ; Stephens, K.K. ; Mackert, M. ; Lee, M.K.: Global health crises are also information crises : a call to action.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.12, S.1419-1423.
Abstract: In this opinion paper, we argue that global health crises are also information crises. Using as an example the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, we (a) examine challenges associated with what we term "global information crises"; (b) recommend changes needed for the field of information science to play a leading role in such crises; and (c) propose actionable items for short- and long-term research, education, and practice in information science.
16Chi, Y. ; He, D. ; Jeng, W.: Laypeople's source selection in online health information-seeking process.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.12, S.1484-1499.
Abstract: For laypeople, searching online health information resources can be challenging due to topic complexity and the large number of online sources with differing quality. The goal of this article is to examine, among all the available online sources, which online sources laypeople select to address their health-related information needs, and whether or how much the severity of a health condition influences their selection. Twenty-four participants were recruited individually, and each was asked (using a retrieval system called HIS) to search for information regarding a severe health condition and a mild health condition, respectively. The selected online health information sources were automatically captured by the HIS system and classified at both the website and webpage levels. Participants' selection behavior patterns were then plotted across the whole information-seeking process. Our results demonstrate that laypeople's source selection fluctuates during the health information-seeking process, and also varies by the severity of health conditions. This study reveals laypeople's real usage of different types of online health information sources, and engenders implications to the design of search engines, as well as the development of health literacy programs.
17Zigron, S. ; Bronstein, J.: "Help is where you find it" : the role of weak ties networks as sources of information and support in virtual health communities.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.2, S.130-139.
Abstract: Virtual health communities allow people with health-related concerns to engage in supportive communication with individuals coping with similar problems that would be difficult or impossible to form in the face-to-face world. This study examined the information interactions in an Israeli virtual health community on Facebook dealing with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease drawing from the "weak ties" network theory as a theoretical framework. Weak ties are social ties or acquaintances that can function as an important source for diversified experiential information and emotional support, reducing stigma and providing a sense of belonging. The study consisted of 23 semistructured interviews with registered members of the group. Findings of this study parallel the four functions of weak ties by allowing chronically ill patients: access to diverse sources of information including experiential information from others suffering from the same illness; the possibility to disclose personal information reducing fear from stigma or rejection; and a sense of belonging.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24106.
18Pee, L.G. ; Pan, S.L. ; Cui, L.: Artificial intelligence in healthcare robots : a social informatics study of knowledge embodiment.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.4, S.351-369.
Abstract: Knowledge embodiment, taking a social informatics perspective, refers to the transformation of knowledge into a form in which its value becomes evident. Knowledge embodiment in robotic systems with artificial intelligence (AI robotic systems) actualizes the value of knowledge much more powerfully than other entities, potentially altering the connections among people or even displacing professionals. To understand the effects of knowledge embodiment in AI robotic systems on connections among people and technology, this study addresses 2 cumulative research questions: (i) What is the nature of knowledge embodiment, that is, how are knowledge and AI robots assembled for knowledge work? (ii) How does knowledge embodiment affect connections among people and technology (that is, social informatics)? A case study of a large hospital that has employed different AI robotic systems in many parts of its healthcare service provision process indicates 4 forms of knowledge embodiment, each with a distinct focus. Further, a social informatics analysis suggests four ways knowledge embodiment affects connections among people and technology and reveals related social and institutional issues that go beyond technological determinism. Implications of these findings for research on social informatics and information science are discussed.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24145.
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Special issue on social informatics of knowledge
Wissenschaftsfach: Informatik ; Medizin
19McCoy, C. ; Rosenbaum, H.: Uncovering unintended and shadow practices of users of decision support system dashboards in higher education institutions.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.4, S.370-384.
Abstract: Higher education institutions' (HEI) have begun to develop decision support system data dashboards (DSS-DD) to improve the data-informed decision making practices of institutional decision makers. This qualitative study examines the practices of decision makers as they engage with DSS-DD at a large U.S. Midwestern university and uncovers the socio-technical characteristics that lead to limited or non-use of dashboards. To examine these practices and characteristics, this study presents a framework grounded in socio-technical interaction networks from social informatics and sociomateriality from information systems that explores the socio-technical practices of users within organizations, while acknowledging the impact of the users' socio-technical contexts on their DSS-DD practices. The results show that during the design and implementation phases of these dashboards the institutional contexts that the dashboards are meant to inform are often ignored; and that as users interact with these systems they develop unintended and shadow practices that lead to limited or non-use of the dashboards for decision making purposes. Additionally, the study finds that users' practices are influenced by their local socio-technical networks, which includes their prior experiences using institutional data, other actors within their institutional unit, and the political and social contexts which shape the users' decision making behavior and data-use practices.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24131.
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Special issue on social informatics of knowledge
Wissenschaftsfach: Informatik ; Medizin
20Naskar, D. ; Das, S.: HNS ontology using faceted approach.
In: Knowledge organization. 46(2019) no.3, S.187-198.
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to develop an ontology with subsequent testing and evaluation, for identifying utility and value. The domain that has been chosen is human nervous system (HNS) disorders. It is hypothesized here that an ontology-based patient records management system is more effective in meeting and addressing complex information needs of health-care personnel. Therefore, this study has been based on the premise that developing an ontology and using it as a component of the search interface in hospital records management systems will lead to more efficient and effective management of health-care.It is proposed here to develop an ontology of the domain of HNS disorders using a standard vocabulary such as MeSH or SNOMED CT. The principal classes of an ontology include facet analysis for arranging concepts based on their common characteristics to build mutually exclusive classes. We combine faceted theory with description logic, which helps us to better query and retrieve data by implementing an ontological model. Protégé 5.2.0 was used as ontology editor. The use of ontologies for domain modelling will be of acute help to doctors for searching patient records. In this paper we show how the faceted approach helps us to build a flexible model and retrieve better information. We use the medical domain as a case study to show examples and implementation.