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1Williams, R.V.: Hans Peter Luhn and Herbert M. Ohlman : their roles in the origins of keyword-in-context/permutation automatic indexing.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.4, S.835-849.
Abstract: The invention of automatic indexing using a keyword-in-context approach has generally been attributed solely to Hans Peter Luhn of IBM. This article shows that credit for this invention belongs equally to Luhn and Herbert Ohlman of the System Development Corporation. It also traces the origins of title derivative automatic indexing, its development and implementation, and current status.
Themenfeld: Geschichte der Sacherschließung ; Automatisches Indexieren
2Käki, M.: fKWIC: frequency-based Keyword-in-Context Index for filtering Web search results.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.12, S.1606-1615.
Abstract: Enormous Web search engine databases combined with short search queries result in large result sets that are often difficult to access. Result ranking works fairly well, but users need help when it fails. For these situations, we propose a filtering interface that is inspired by keyword-in-context (KWIC) indices. The user interface lists the most frequent keyword contexts (fKWIC). When a context is selected, the corresponding results are displayed in the result list, allowing users to concentrate on the specific context. We compared the keyword context index user interface to the rank order result listing in an experiment with 36 participants. The results show that the proposed user interface was 29% faster in finding relevant results, and the precision of the selected results was 19% higher. In addition, participants showed positive attitudes toward the system.
3Obleid, J.: Rechnergestützte Katalogisierung in der Bibliothek des Deutschen Elektronen-Synchrotons DESY : der KWIC-Titel/Stichwort-Katalog.
In: ABI-Technik. 7(1987) Nr.1, S.17-21.
Abstract: In der wissenschaflichen Bibliothek des Deutschen Elektronen-Synchrotons DESY wird die sachliche Erschließung von Titeln und Inhaltsverzeichnissen der Monographien seit Anfang 1980 von Fachwissenschafltern vorgenommen. Anschließend werden rechnerlesbare Titelaufnahmen gemacht. Auch die älteren Bestände werden seither nachträglich bearbeitet. Mit Hilfe der EDV konnte ein Stichwortkatalog erstellt werden, der, verglichen mit anderen automatischen Methoden, nur signifikante und wissenschaftlich präzise Fachbegriffe als Stichwörter herausstellt und so zu einer zuverlässigen Literaturvermittlung führt.
4Luhn, H.P.: Keyword-in-context index for technical literature.
In: Theory of subject analysis: a sourcebook. Ed.: L.M. Chan, et al. Littleton, CO : Libraries Unlimited, 1985. S.168-180.
Abstract: In the optimistic 1960s the potential of the computer seemed limitless. The realization of this potential in the area of information retrieval and dissemination owes much to the creative mind of Hans Peter Luhn. A pioneer of information science, he had a mind and an imagination that could transcend the state of the art. Luhn was born in Germany, where he studied technology, physics, and accounting. He came to the United States in 1924 and in 1941, at the age of 45, he joined IBM. In the course of his twenty-year tenure at IBM, he was issued over eighty patents; at one time he held more than any other IBM employee. Luhn is credited with originating KWIC indexes, computer selective dissemination systems (SDI), computer coding schemes, and statistical techniques for automatic indexing and abstracting. Also attributed to him is the first modern use of the word "thesaurus." The selection that follows modestly presents the idea of a Keyword in Context (KWIC) index. This is the idea of automatically identifying significant or "key" words and highlighting them in context. The context in question was normally a title. Though title term or catchword indexing had been practiced for over one hundred years, the implementation of the idea in mechanized systems in the 1960s was not trivial. It required programming the computer to recognize word boundaries and then developing a means for automatically differentiating significant from nonsignificant words. Spaces were used to demarcate word boundaries and a stop list, consisting of articles, conjunctions, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, some adjectives, and some very common words, was used to differentiate significant from nonsignificant words. A difficulty with any automatic indexing limited to extracting single words from texts is the semantic indeterminancy of the extracted character strings. To disambiguate these, Luhn adopted the concordance idea, proposing to display them in the context of their titles. Specifying the meaning of an index term by couching it in "context," anticipated the later development of string index languages such as PRECIS (PREserved Context Index System). Although the selection that follows is quite short, it presents, in addition to the idea of KWIC, what at the time were two innovative ideas. One is the distinction between the dissemination and the retrieval of information, in regard to which Luhn makes a point sometimes overlooked by modern critics of KWIC. This is that different purposes require different kinds of indexes; an index that is used to disseminate information for current awareness need not be as "perfect" as one used for retrospective information retrieval. The need to alert researchers to current information quickly, and the somewhat transitory character of this information, make KWIC, albeit quick and dirty, a costeffective alternative for dissemination indexes. The second harbinger idea is a method of uniquely identifying documents for retrieval using an identification code comprising the initial characters from a document's author, title, and - interestingly - year of publication. Luhn's mind was fertile indeed and he is aptly called a pioneer of information science.
Anmerkung: Nachdruck des Originalartikels mit Kommentierung durch die Herausgeber ; Original in: Tech Report RC-127. Yorktown Heights, NY: IBM 1959.
5Bernhardt, R.: Erstellung von Registern.
In: Libri. 21(1971) no.1-3, S.215-225.
Abstract: The paper deals with procedures and problems arising when computers are used as tools in the production of indexes. The following steps of the procedure are explained and studied: 1) Correction of machine-readable records; 2) Production of index entries. Here, various methods and forms (KWIC, KWOC, rotation method) and dictionary use are described and discussed, and information about their advantages and disadvantages is given; 3) Sorting and cumulation of index entries; 4) Output and setting, output feasibilities are detailed. Emphasis is also laid on the problems arising from the non-satisfactory links of the processing chain: data recording, limited fonts, and choice of index terms.
Objekt: KWIC ; KWOC