Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Wang, Y. ; Tai, Y. ; Yang, Y.: Determination of semantic types of tags in social tagging systems.
In: Knowledge organization. 45(2018) no.8, S.653-666.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine semantic types for tags in social tagging systems. In social tagging systems, the determination of the semantic type of tags plays an important role in tag classification, increasing the semantic information of tags and establishing mapping relations between tagged resources and a normed ontology. The research reported in this paper constructs the semantic type library that is needed based on the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and FrameNet and determines the semantic type of selected tags that have been pretreated via direct matching using the Semantic Navigator tool, the Semantic Type Word Sense Disambiguation (STWSD) tools in UMLS, and artificial matching. And finally, we verify the feasibility of the determination of semantic type for tags by empirical analysis.
Themenfeld: Social tagging ; Wissensrepräsentation
Objekt: UMLS ; FrameNet
2Andrade, J. de ; Lopes Ginez de Lara, M.: Interoperability and mapping between knowledge organization systems : metathesaurus - Unified Medical Language System of the National Library of Medicine.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.2, S.102-106.
Abstract: This paper is aimed at assessing the potential of interoperable knowledge organization systems to respond to search strategies in order to retrieve information from databases in the areas of health and biomedicine. An analysis was done on the semantic consistency of synonym grouping of a term selected from the Metathesaurus, the Unified Medical Language System of the National Library of Medicine, based on the characteristics of equivalence proposed in ISO 25964: 2: 2011 and based on the following categories: semantic, morphological, syntactic and typographical variations. This paper highlights the importance of understanding the results of automatic mapping as well as the need for characterization, evaluation and selection of equivalences for preparation of consistent search strategies and presentation of search results in scientific work methodologies.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_43_2016_2_d.pdf.
Anmerkung: Selected Papers from IIIrd Brazilian Conference on Knowledge Organization (III Congresso Brasileiro em organização e representação do Conhecimento), Marília 2015-ISKO-Brazil (ISKO-Brasil).
Themenfeld: Semantische Interoperabilität ; Konzeption und Anwendung des Prinzips Thesaurus
Objekt: UMLS ; ISO 25964-2
3Marcondes, C.H. ; Costa, L.C da.: ¬A model to represent and process scientific knowledge in biomedical articles with semantic Web technologies.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.2, S.73-85.
Abstract: Knowledge organization faces the challenge of managing the amount of knowledge available on the Web. Published literature in biomedical sciences is a huge source of knowledge, which can only efficiently be managed through automatic methods. The conventional channel for reporting scientific results is Web electronic publishing. Despite its advances, scientific articles are still published in print formats such as portable document format (PDF). Semantic Web and Linked Data technologies provides new opportunities for communicating, sharing, and integrating scientific knowledge that can overcome the limitations of the current print format. Here is proposed a semantic model of scholarly electronic articles in biomedical sciences that can overcome the limitations of traditional flat records formats. Scientific knowledge consists of claims made throughout article texts, especially when semantic elements such as questions, hypotheses and conclusions are stated. These elements, although having different roles, express relationships between phenomena. Once such knowledge units are extracted and represented with technologies such as RDF (Resource Description Framework) and linked data, they may be integrated in reasoning chains. Thereby, the results of scientific research can be published and shared in structured formats, enabling crawling by software agents, semantic retrieval, knowledge reuse, validation of scientific results, and identification of traces of scientific discoveries.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_43_2016_2_b.pdf.
Wissenschaftsfach: Medizin ; Biologie
Objekt: UMLS ; RDF
4Chebil, W. ; Soualmia, L.F. ; Omri, M.N. ; Darmoni, S.F.: Indexing biomedical documents with a possibilistic network.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.4, S.928-941.
Abstract: In this article, we propose a new approach for indexing biomedical documents based on a possibilistic network that carries out partial matching between documents and biomedical vocabulary. The main contribution of our approach is to deal with the imprecision and uncertainty of the indexing task using possibility theory. We enhance estimation of the similarity between a document and a given concept using the two measures of possibility and necessity. Possibility estimates the extent to which a document is not similar to the concept. The second measure can provide confirmation that the document is similar to the concept. Our contribution also reduces the limitation of partial matching. Although the latter allows extracting from the document other variants of terms than those in dictionaries, it also generates irrelevant information. Our objective is to filter the index using the knowledge provided by the Unified Medical Language System®. Experiments were carried out on different corpora, showing encouraging results (the improvement rate is +26.37% in terms of main average precision when compared with the baseline).
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23435/abstract.
Themenfeld: Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
5Plaza, L. ; Stevenson, M. ; Díaz, A.: Resolving ambiguity in biomedical text to improve summarization.
In: Information processing and management. 48(2012) no.4, S.755-766.
Abstract: Access to the vast body of research literature that is now available on biomedicine and related fields can be improved with automatic summarization. This paper describes a summarization system for the biomedical domain that represents documents as graphs formed from concepts and relations in the UMLS Metathesaurus. This system has to deal with the ambiguities that occur in biomedical documents. We describe a variety of strategies that make use of MetaMap and Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) to accurately map biomedical documents onto UMLS Metathesaurus concepts. Evaluation is carried out using a collection of 150 biomedical scientific articles from the BioMed Central corpus. We find that using WSD improves the quality of the summaries generated.
Inhalt: Vgl.: doi:10.1016/j.ipm.2011.09.005.
Themenfeld: Automatisches Abstracting
6Nelson, S.J. ; Powell, T. ; Srinivasan, S. ; Humphreys, B.L.: Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®) Project.
In: Encyclopedia of library and information sciences. 3rd ed. Ed.: M.J. Bates. London : Taylor & Francis, 2009. S.5320-5327.
Abstract: The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is a long-term research and development effort of the National Library of Medicine, aimed at assisting users in finding information from multiple sources without understanding the intricacies of each particular source. Consisting of three major knowledge sources, a Metathesaurus, a Semantic Network, and a set of lexical processing tools, the UMLS is produced and released twice yearly. Recent efforts have been aimed at expanding coverage in genetics and in clinical vocabularies designed for use in medical record systems. RxNorm, produced and released on a monthly basis, with weekly updates, is an outgrowth of the UMLS, focusing on medication terminology.
Inhalt: Digital unter: http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/E-ELIS3-120043969. Vgl.: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/book/10.1081/E-ELIS3.
7Na, J.-C. ; Neoh, H.L.: Effectiveness of UMLS semantic network as a seed ontology for building a medical domain ontology.
In: Aslib proceedings. 60(2008) no.1, S.32-46.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this article is to examine the effectiveness of the unified medical language system (UMLS) semantic network as a seed ontology for building a medical field ontology. Design/methodology/approach - The information extraction process known as the knowledge engineering approach was used to extract concepts and their semantic relations from documents on "colon cancer treatment". The UMLS semantic network was used as a seed ontology, and was extended and enriched with the extracted concepts and semantic relations using Protégé. Findings - Only half of the semantic relations extracted manually were defined (or inferable) in the UMLS semantic network. The remaining half could be added to the network to extend its coverage. In addition, two semantic types in the network were found to be too general and four new sublevel semantic types were proposed to make them more specific. Research limitations/implications - Since only 109 research paper abstracts in the "colon cancer treatment" domain were analyzed in this study, more abstracts from the colon cancer treatment domain as well as from other cancer treatment domains (such as breast cancer treatment) can be analyzed to give a better generalization of our findings. Originality/value - This study shares our findings on the effectiveness of the UMLS semantic network as a seed ontology for building a medical domain ontology, and also provides the basic guidelines for building or extending a medical domain ontology using the UMLS.
8Humphrey, S.M. ; Rogers, W.J. ; Kilicoglu, H. ; Demner-Fushman, D. ; Rindflesch, T.C.: Word sense disambiguation by selecting the best semantic type based on journal descriptor indexing : preliminary experiment.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.1, S.96-113.
Abstract: An experiment was performed at the National Library of Medicine® (NLM®) in word sense disambiguation (WSD) using the Journal Descriptor Indexing (JDI) methodology. The motivation is the need to solve the ambiguity problem confronting NLM's MetaMap system, which maps free text to terms corresponding to concepts in NLM's Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®) Metathesaurus®. If the text maps to more than one Metathesaurus concept at the same high confidence score, MetaMap has no way of knowing which concept is the correct mapping. We describe the JDI methodology, which is ultimately based an statistical associations between words in a training set of MEDLINE® citations and a small set of journal descriptors (assigned by humans to journals per se) assumed to be inherited by the citations. JDI is the basis for selecting the best meaning that is correlated to UMLS semantic types (STs) assigned to ambiguous concepts in the Metathesaurus. For example, the ambiguity transport has two meanings: "Biological Transport" assigned the ST Cell Function and "Patient transport" assigned the ST Health Care Activity. A JDI-based methodology can analyze text containing transport and determine which ST receives a higher score for that text, which then returns the associated meaning, presumed to apply to the ambiguity itself. We then present an experiment in which a baseline disambiguation method was compared to four versions of JDI in disambiguating 45 ambiguous strings from NLM's WSD Test Collection. Overall average precision for the highest-scoring JDI version was 0.7873 compared to 0.2492 for the baseline method, and average precision for individual ambiguities was greater than 0.90 for 23 of them (51%), greater than 0.85 for 24 (53%), and greater than 0.65 for 35 (79%). On the basis of these results, we hope to improve performance of JDI and test its use in applications.
Objekt: Medline ; UMLS
9Cazan, C.: Medizinische Ontologien : das Ende des MeSH.
In: GMS Med Bibl Inf. 6(2006) H.3, Doc31.
Abstract: Die Komplexizität medizinischer Fragestellungen und des medizinischen Informationsmanagements war seit den Anfängen der Informatik immer ein besonders wichtiges Thema. Trotz des Scheiterns der Künstlichen Intelligenz in den 80er Jahren des vorigen Jahrhunderts haben deren Kernideen Früchte getragen. Durch kongruente Entwicklung einer Reihe anderer Wissenschaftsdisziplinen und der exponentiellen Entwicklung im Bereich Computerhardware konnten die gestellten, hohen Anforderungen bei der medizinischen Informationssuche doch noch erfüllt werden. Die programmatische Forderung von Tim Berners-Lee betreffend "Semantic Web" im Jahr 2000 hat dem Thema Ontologien für maschinenlesbare Repositorien in Allgemein- und Fachsprache breitere Aufmerksamkeit gewonnen. Da in der Medizin (PubMed) mit dem von NLM schon vor 20 Jahren entwickelten Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) eine funktionierende Ontologie in Form eines semantischen Netzes in Betrieb ist, ist es auch für Medizinbibliothekare und Medizindokumentare hoch an der Zeit, sich damit zu beschäftigen. Ontologien können im Wesen, trotz der informatisch vernebelnden Terminologie, als Werkzeuge der Klassifikation verstanden werden. Hier sind von seiten der Bibliotheks- und Dokumentationswissenschaft wesentliche Beiträge möglich. Der vorliegende Bericht bietet einen Einstieg in das Thema, erklärt wesentliche Elemente des UMLS und schließt mit einer kommentierten Anmerkungs- und Literaturliste für die weitere Beschäftigung mit Ontologien.
Inhalt: Dieser Aufsatz ist kein Abgesang auf MeSH (= Medical Subject Headings in Medline/PubMed), wie man/frau vielleicht vermuten könnte. Vielmehr wird - ohne informatiklastiges Fachchinesisch - an Hand des von der National Library of Medicine entwickelten Unified Medical Language System erklärt, worin die Anforderungen an Ontologien bestehen, die im Zusammenhang mit dem Semantic Web allerorten eingefordert und herbeigewünscht werden. Eine Lektüre für Einsteigerinnen, die zum Vertiefen der gewonnenen Begriffssicherheit an Hand der weiterführenden Literaturhinweise anregt. Da das UMLS hier vor allem als Beispiel verwendet wird, werden auch Bibliothekarlnnen, Dokumentarlnnen und Informationsspezialistinnen anderer Fachbereiche den Aufsatz mit Gewinn lesen - und erfahren, dass unser Fachwissen aus der Sacherschließung und der Verwendung und Mitgestaltung von Normdateien und Thesauri bei der Entwicklung von Ontologien gefragt ist! (Eveline Pipp, Universitätsbibliothek Innsbruck). - Die elektronische Version dieses Artikels ist verfügbar unter: http://www.egms.de/en/journals/mbi/2006-6/mbi000049.shtml.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Konzeption und Anwendung des Prinzips Thesaurus
Objekt: MeSH ; UMLS
10Chen, H. ; Lally, A.M. ; Zhu, B. ; Chau, M.: HelpfulMed : Intelligent searching for medical information over the Internet.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 54(2003) no.7, S.683-694.
Abstract: The Medical professionals and researchers need information from reputable sources to accomplish their work. Unfortunately, the Web has a large number of documents that are irrelevant to their work, even those documents that purport to be "medically-related." This paper describes an architecture designed to integrate advanced searching and indexing algorithms, an automatic thesaurus, or "concept space," and Kohonen-based Self-Organizing Map (SOM) technologies to provide searchers with finegrained results. Initial results indicate that these systems provide complementary retrieval functionalities. HelpfulMed not only allows users to search Web pages and other online databases, but also allows them to build searches through the use of an automatic thesaurus and browse a graphical display of medical-related topics. Evaluation results for each of the different components are included. Our spidering algorithm outperformed both breadth-first search and PageRank spiders an a test collection of 100,000 Web pages. The automatically generated thesaurus performed as well as both MeSH and UMLS-systems which require human mediation for currency. Lastly, a variant of the Kohonen SOM was comparable to MeSH terms in perceived cluster precision and significantly better at perceived cluster recall.
Anmerkung: Teil eines Themenheftes: "Web retrieval and mining: A machine learning perspective"
Themenfeld: Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval ; Retrievalalgorithmen
Objekt: HelpfulMed ; SOM ; MeSH ; UMLS
11McCray, A.T. ; Bodenreider, O.: ¬A conceptual framework for the biomedical domain.
In: The semantics of relationships: an interdisciplinary perspective. Eds: Green, R., C.A. Bean u. S.H. Myaeng. Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002. S.181-198.
(Information science and knowledge management; vol.3)
Abstract: Specialized domains often come with an extensive terminology, suitable for storing and exchanging information, but not necessarily for knowledge processing. Knowledge structures such as semantic networks, or ontologies, are required to explore the semantics of a domain. The UMLS project at the National Library of Medicine is a research effort to develop knowledge-based resources for the biomedical domain. The Metathesaurus is a large body of knowledge that defines and inter-relates 730,000 biomedical concepts, and the Semantic Network defines the semantic principles that apply to this domain. This chapter presents these two knowledge sources and illustrates through a research study how they can collaborate to further structure the domain. The limits of the approach are discussed.
Anmerkung: Mit Abbildungen zu UMLS
Wissenschaftsfach: Medizin ; Biochemie
12Stuart, S.J. ; Powell, T. ; Humphreys, B.L.: ¬The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project.
In: Encyclopedia of library and information science. Vol.71, [=Suppl.34]. New York : Dekker, 2002. S.369-378.
Abstract: In 1986, Donald A. B. Lindberg, M.D., Director of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), initiated a long-term research and development effort known as the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). Anticipating increasing amounts of biomedical information available in electronic form, he believed that NLM should facilitate the development of advanced information systems that could retrieve and integrate information from a variety of disparate information sources, including bibliographic databases, patient record systems, factual databanks, and knowledge bases. He recognized that a major barrier to effective retrieval and integration of information from multiple sources was the "naming problem," or the variety of different ways that the same concepts are expressed in different information sources and by different information seekers. To address the complex problems of relating user inquiries to the content of biomedical information sources and of aggregating comparable data derived from disparate databases, the NLM assembled a multidisciplinary in-house research group and also awarded a series of research contracts to a number of primarily academic investigators. The first several years of UMLS research were devoted to studying user needs, developing research tools, identifying required capabilities, exploring alternative methods for delivering these capabilities, and defining in general terms the new knowledge sources that would be needed to support integrated use of information from disparate electronic biomedical sources. Based an the results of this early work, the conception of UMLS components as "middleware" designed for use by system developers emerged. Since 1990, NLM has issued annual editions of UMLS knowledge sources and associated lexical programs. Over the past decade, these resources have grown and developed, the methodology of creating them has matured, and their utility has been demonstrated in many different information systems. Today more than 1,000 individuals and institutions worldwide license the UMLS resources, which are free of charge. The majority of the licensees use one or more of the UMLS components in information systems, often in creative and innovative undertakings. The NLM itself uses UMLS components to enhance retrieval from a number of its information devices, including the MEDLINE database available via PubMed, the ClinicalTrials.gov database of ongoing clinical trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and other organizations, and the NLM Gateway, which provides a single point of entry to a number of different NLM databases. The library also relies heavily an the UMLS resources in its natural language processing and digital library research programs.
13Weeber, M. ; Klein, H. ; Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W. de ; Vos, R.: Using concepts in literature-based discovery : simulating Swanson's Raynaud-Fish Oil and Migraine-Manesium discoveries.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 52(2001) no.7, S.548-557.
Abstract: Literature-based discovery has resulted in new knowledge. In the biomedical context, Don R. Swanson has generated several literature-based hypotheses that have been corroborated experimentally and clinically. In this paper, we propose a two-step model of the discovery process in which hypotheses are generated and subsequently tested. We have implemented this model in a Natural Language Processing system that uses biomedical Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts as its unit of analysis. We use the semantic information that is provided with these concepts as a powerful filter to successfully simulate Swanson's discoveries of connecting Raynaud's disease with fish oil and migraine with a magnesium deficiency
14Bodenreider, O. ; Bean, C.A.: Relationships among knowledge structures : vocabulary integration within a subject domain.
In: Relationships in the organization of knowledge. Eds.: Bean, C.A. u. R. Green. Boston, MA : Kluwer Academic, 2001. S.81-98.
(Information science and knowledge management; vol.2)
Abstract: The structure of terminology systems can be seen as one way to organize knowledge. This paper focuses an three types of relationships among terms: synonymy, hierarchical relationships, and explicit mapping relationships. Examples drawn from various medical vocabularies illustrate each type of relationship. The integration of disparate terminological knowledge structures in the Unified Medical Language System is presented and discussed.
Themenfeld: Theorie verbaler Dokumentationssprachen
15Wright, L.W. ; Nardini, H.K.G. ; Aronson, A.R. ; Rindflesch, T.C.: Hierarchical concept indexing of full-text documents in the Unified Medical Language System Information sources Map.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 50(1999) no.6, S.514-523.
Abstract: Full-text documents are a vital and rapidly growing part of online biomedical information. A single large document can contain as much information as a small database, but normally lacks the tight structure and consistent indexing of a database. Retrieval systems will often miss highly relevant parts of a document if the document as a whole appears irrelevant. Access to full-text information is further complicated by the need to search separately many disparate information resources. This research explores how these problems can be addressed by the combined use of 2 techniques: 1) natural language processing for automatic concept-based indexing of full text, and 2) methods for exploiting the structure and hierarchy of full-text documents. We describe methods for applying these techniques to a large collection of full-text documents drawn from the Health Services / Technology Assessment Text (HSTAT) database at the NLM and examine how this hierarchical concept indexing can assist both document- and source-level retrieval in the context of NLM's Information Source Map project
Themenfeld: Computerlinguistik ; Wissensrepräsentation
16Zeng, M.L.: Towards a unified medical langugae in a diverse cultural environment.
In: Knowledge organization and change: Proceedings of the Fourth International ISKO Conference, 15-18 July 1996, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Ed.: R. Green. Frankfurt : INDEKS, 1996. S.51-58.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.5)
Abstract: Presents compatibility issues which have surfaced as a result of the attempts to establish unified indexing vocabularies
Objekt: MeSH ; UMLS
17Bean, C.A.: Analysis of non-hierarchical associative relationships among Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) : anatomical and related terminology.
In: Knowledge organization and change: Proceedings of the Fourth International ISKO Conference, 15-18 July 1996, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Ed.: R. Green. Frankfurt : INDEKS, 1996. S.80-86.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.5)
Abstract: Implicit associative relationships among MeSH headings relevant to clinical anatomy were investigated to determine the extent to which they could be characterized, organized, and structured, and the degree to which this process might be automated was assessed
Objekt: MeSH ; UMLS
18Hoppe, S.: ¬The UMLS - a model for knowledge integration in a subject field.
In: Compatibility and integration of order systems: Research Seminar Proceedings of the TIP/ISKO Meeting, Warsaw, 13-15 September 1995. Warszawa : Stowazys. Bibliotekarzy Polskich, 1996. S. -.
(Propozycje i Materialy; 6)
19Gillam, L. ; Ahmad, K.: Knowledge-engineered terminology (data)bases.
In: TKE'96: Terminology and knowledge engineering. Proceedings 4th International Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering, 26.-28.8.1996, Wien. Ed.: C. Galinski u. K.-D. Schmitz. Frankfurt : Indeks, 1996. S.205-214.
Objekt: UMLS ; KL-ONE ; BABYLON
20Srinivasan, P.: Optimal document-indexing vocabulary for MEDLINE.
In: Information processing and management. 32(1996) no.5, S.503-514.
Abstract: The indexing vocabulary is an important determinant of success in text retrieval. Researchers have compared the effectiveness of indexing using free text and controlled vocabularies in a variety of text contexts. A number of studies have investigated the relative merits of free-text, MeSH and UMLS metathesaurus indexing vocabularies for MEDLINE document indexing. Controlled vocabularies offer no advantages in retrieval performance over free text. Offers a detailed analysis of prior results and their underlying experimental designs. Offers results from a new experiment assessing 8 different retrieval strategies. Results indicate that MeSH does have an important role in text retrieval
Objekt: MEDLINE ; MeSH ; UMLS