Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Blair, A. u.a. (Hrsg.): Information : a historical companion.
Princeton : Princeton University Press, 2021. XX, 881 S.
Abstract: Thanks to modern technological advances, we now enjoy seemingly unlimited access to information. Yet how did information become so central to our everyday lives, and how did its processing and storage make our data-driven era possible? This volume is the first to consider these questions in comprehensive detail, tracing the global emergence of information practices, technologies, and more, from the premodern era to the present. With entries spanning archivists to algorithms and scribes to surveilling, this is the ultimate reference on how information has shaped and been shaped by societies. ; Written by an international team of experts (including Jeremy Adelman, Lorraine Daston, Devin Fitzgerald, John-Paul Ghobrial, Lisa Gitelman, Earle Havens, Randolph C. Head, Niv Horesh, Sarah Igo, Richard R. John, Lauren Kassell, Pamela Long, Erin McGuirl, David McKitterick, Elias Muhanna, Thomas S. Mullaney, Carla Nappi, Craig Robertson, Daniel Rosenberg, Neil Safier, Haun Saussy, Will Slauter, Jacob Soll, Heidi Tworek, Siva Vaidhyanathan, Alexandra Walsham), the book's inspired and original long- and short-form contributions reconstruct the rise of human approaches to creating, managing, and sharing facts and knowledge. Thirteen full-length chapters discuss the role of information in pivotal epochs and regions, with chief emphasis on Europe and North America, but also substantive treatment of other parts of the world as well as current global interconnections. More than 100 alphabetical entries follow, focusing on specific tools, methods, and concepts?from ancient coins to the office memo, and censorship to plagiarism. The result is a wide-ranging, deeply immersive collection that will appeal to anyone drawn to the story behind our modern mania for an informed existence.
Inhalt: Cover -- Contents -- Introduction -- Alphabetical List of Entries -- Thematic List of Entries -- Contributors -- PART ONE -- 1. Premodern Regimes and Practices -- 2. Realms of Information in the Medieval Islamic World -- 3. Information in Early Modern East Asia -- 4. Information in Early Modern Europe -- 5. Networks and the Making of a Connected World in the Sixteenth Century -- 6. Records, Secretaries, and the European Information State, circa 1400-1700 -- 7. Periodicals and the Commercialization of Information in the Early Modern Era -- 8. Documents, Empire, and Capitalism in the Nineteenth Century -- 9. Nineteenth-Century Media Technologies -- 10. Networking: Information Circles the Modern World -- 11. Publicity, Propaganda, and Public Opinion: From the Titanic Disaster to the Hungarian Uprising -- 12. Communication, Computation, and Information -- 13. Search -- PART TWO -- Alphabetical Entries -- Glossary -- Index.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 73(2022) no.3, S.485-488 (Jodi Kearns).
LCSH: Information science / History ; Information resources / History ; Information science / Enclopedias
RSWK: Informations- und Dokumentationswissenschaft / Geschichte
BK: 15.07 (Kulturgeschichte)
RVK: AN 92900 ; AP 13400 ; AP 13300
2Badia, A.: ¬The information manifold : why computers cannot solve algorithmic bias and fake news.
Cambridge, UK : MIT Press, 2019. xvii, 334 S.
(History and foundations of information science)
Abstract: An argument that information exists at different levels of analysis-syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic-and an exploration of the implications. Although this is the Information Age, there is no universal agreement about what information really is. Different disciplines view information differently; engineers, computer scientists, economists, linguists, and philosophers all take varying and apparently disconnected approaches. In this book, Antonio Badia distinguishes four levels of analysis brought to bear on information: syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, and network-based. Badia explains each of these theoretical approaches in turn, discussing, among other topics, theories of Claude Shannon and Andrey Kolomogorov, Fred Dretske's description of information flow, and ideas on receiver impact and informational interactions. Badia argues that all these theories describe the same phenomena from different perspectives, each one narrower than the previous one. The syntactic approach is the more general one, but it fails to specify when information is meaningful to an agent, which is the focus of the semantic and pragmatic approaches. The network-based approach, meanwhile, provides a framework to understand information use among agents. Badia then explores the consequences of understanding information as existing at several levels. Humans live at the semantic and pragmatic level (and at the network level as a society), computers at the syntactic level. This sheds light on some recent issues, including "fake news" (computers cannot tell whether a statement is true or not, because truth is a semantic notion) and "algorithmic bias" (a pragmatic, not syntactic concern). Humans, not computers, the book argues, have the ability to solve these issues.
Inhalt: Introduction -- Information as codes : Shannon, Kolmogorov and the start of it all -- Information as content : semantics, possible worlds and all that jazz -- Information as pragmatics : impact and consequences -- Information as communication : networks and the phenomenon of emergence -- Will the real information please stand up? -- Is Shannon's theory a theory of information? -- Computers and information I : what can computers do? -- Computers and information II : machine learning, big data and algorithic bias -- Humans and information --Conclusions : where from here?
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 72(2021) no.3, S.357-361. (Marc Kosciejew)
Wissenschaftsfach: Informatik ; Kommunikationswissenschaften
LCSH: Information science / Philosophy ; Communication / Philosophy ; Information theory
RSWK: Massenmedien / Soziologie ; Informationsbeschaffung / Falschmeldung
BK: 05.31 Öffentlichkeit Kommunikationswissenschaft
3Arafat, S. ; Ashoori, E.: Search foundations : toward a science of technology-mediated experience.
Cambridge, MA : MIT Press, 2018. 448 S.
(History and foundations of information science)
Abstract: This book contributes to discussions within Information Retrieval and Science (IR&S) by improving our conceptual understanding of the relationship between humans and technology. A call to redirect the intellectual focus of information retrieval and science (IR&S) toward the phenomenon of technology-mediated experience. In this book, Sachi Arafat and Elham Ashoori issue a call to reorient the intellectual focus of information retrieval and science (IR&S) away from search and related processes toward the more general phenomenon of technology-mediated experience. Technology-mediated experience accounts for an increasing proportion of human lived experience; the phenomenon of mediation gets at the heart of the human-machine relationship. Framing IR&S more broadly in this way generalizes its problems and perspectives, dovetailing them with those shared across disciplines dealing with socio-technical phenomena. This reorientation of IR&S requires imagining it as a new kind of science: a science of technology-mediated experience (STME). Arafat and Ashoori not only offer detailed analysis of the foundational concepts underlying IR&S and other technical disciplines but also boldly call for a radical, systematic appropriation of the sciences and humanities to create a better understanding of the human-technology relationship. Arafat and Ashoori discuss the notion of progress in IR&S and consider ideas of progress from the history and philosophy of science. They argue that progress in IR&S requires explicit linking between technical and nontechnical aspects of discourse. They develop a network of basic questions and present a discursive framework for addressing these questions. With this book, Arafat and Ashoori provide both a manifesto for the reimagining of their field and the foundations on which a reframed IR&S would rest.
Inhalt: The embedding of the foundational in the adhoc -- Notions of progress in information retrieval -- From growth to progress I : methodology for understanding progress -- From growth to progress II : the network of discourse -- Basic questions characterising foundations discourse -- Enduring nature of foundations -- Foundations as the way to the authoritative against the authoritarian : a conclusion
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 72(2021) no.3, S.377-383. (Marcia J. Bates)
LCSH: Information science ; Information retrieval
RSWK: Informationsverhalten / Informations- und Dokumentationswissenschaft
BK: 06.74 Informationssysteme
RVK: AN 96000: Allgemeines / Allgemeines / Buch- und Bibliothekswesen, Informationswissenschaft ; ST 278: Mensch-Maschine-Kommunikation Software-Ergonomie / Informatik / Monografien
4Sonnenwald, D.H. (Hrsg.): Theory development in the information sciences.
Austin, TX : University of Texas Press, 2016. vi, 343 S.
Abstract: Emerging as a discipline in the first half of the twentieth century, the information sciences study how people, groups, organizations, and governments create, share, disseminate, manage, search, access, evaluate, and protect information, as well as how different technologies and policies can facilitate and constrain these activities. Given the broad span of the information sciences, it is perhaps not surprising that there is no consensus regarding its underlying theory the purposes of it, the types of it, or how one goes about developing new theories to talk about new research questions. Diane H. Sonnenwald and the contributors to this volume seek to shed light on these issues by sharing reflections on the theory-development process. These reflections are not meant to revolve around data collection and analysis; rather, they focus on the struggles, challenges, successes, and excitement of developing theories. The particular theories that the contributors explore in their essays range widely, from theories of literacy and reading to theories of design and digital search. Several chapters engage with theories of the behavior of individuals and groups; some deal with processes of evaluation; others reflect on questions of design; and the rest treat cultural and scientific heritage. The ultimate goal, Sonnenwald writes in her introduction, is to "encourage, inspire, and assist individuals striving to develop and/or teach theory development.""
Inhalt: Inhalt: Exploring Theory Development: Learning from Diverse Masters Behavior of Individuals and Groups Many Paths to Theory: The Creative Process in the Information Sciences Reflections on Theory Construction in Human Information Behavior: A Theory of Browsing Reflections on the Development of a Theoretical Perspective Converging on Theory from Four Sides Evaluation Drawing Graphs for Theory Development in Bibliometrics and Retrieval Two Views on Theory Development for Interactive Information Retrieval Relevance: In Search of a Theoretical Foundation The Story of a Colony: Theory Development in Webometric Research Design Theorizing the Unprecedented Appropriating Theory Theory for Design: The Case of Reading Cultural and Scientific Heritage The Poverty of Theory; or, The Education of Jerome McGann Illuminating Daughter-Mother Narratives in Young Adult Fiction The Noblest Pleasure: Theories of Understanding in the Information Sciences Apologia pro Theoria Sua Supporting Future Theory Development
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 67(2017) no.7, S.1796-1801 (Birger Hjørland).
LCSH: Information science ; Information theory
RSWK: Informations- und Dokumentationswissenschaft / Theoriebildung / Informationstheorie
BK: 6.00 Information und Dokumentation: Allgemeines
DDC: 020 / dc23
RVK: AN 930000 ; ST 270
5Davis, C.H. ; Shaw, D. (Hrsg.): Introduction to information science and technology.
Medford, NJ : Information Today, 2011. 272 S.
(ASIS&T Monograph Series)
Abstract: The information age is empowered by being connected and knowing the best options for the job. "Introduction to Information Science and Technology" discusses how to maximize the use of such technology in today's importance of connecting information to all those involved. Chapters grant a comprehensive overview of information technology, who needs the information, organization, use of the internet, and theories for more effective use in our future. "Introduction to Information Science and Technology" is a fine delve into the fast combining concepts of information and technology, and how to apply it to one's own endeavors, a core addition for community and college library technology collections.
Inhalt: Our world of information -- Foundations of information science and technology -- Information needs, seeking, and use -- Representation of information -- Organization of information -- Computers and networks -- Structured information systems -- Information system applications -- Evaluation of information systems -- Information management -- Publication and information technologies -- Information policy -- The information professions -- Information theory.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 63(2012) no.8, S.1673-1674 (I. Fourie); Mitt VÖB 65(2012) H.3/4, S.567-571 (O. Oberhauser)
Themenfeld: Grundlagen u. Einführungen: Allgemeine Literatur
LCSH: Information science ; Information technology
GHBS: BAHR (FH K)
6Gleick, J.: ¬The information : a history, a theory, a flood.
New York : Pantheon Books, 2011. 526 S.
Abstract: From the invention of scripts and alphabets to the long misunderstood "talking drums" of Africa, James Gleick tells the story of information technologies that changed the very nature of human consciousness. He also provides portraits of the key figures contributing to the inexorable development of our modern understanding of information, including Charles Babbage, Ada Byron, Samuel Morse, Alan Turing, and Claude Shannon.
Inhalt: Drums that talk -- Persistence of the word -- Two wordbooks -- To throw the powers of thought into wheel-work -- A nervous system for the Earth -- New wires, new logic -- Information theory -- The informational turn -- Entropy and its demons -- Life's own code -- Into the meme pool -- The sense of randomness -- Information is physical -- After the flood -- New news every day.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 62(2011) no.12, S.2543-2545 (C.H. Davis)
LCSH: Information science / History ; Information society
RSWK: Kommunikation / Information / Informationsgesellschaft ; Kommunikation / Information / Geschichte (BVB) ; Informations- und Dokumentationswissenschaft / Geschichtee (BVB) ; Informationsgesellschafte (BVB)
BK: 15.07 / Kulturgeschichte ; 05.20 / Kommunikation und Gesellschaft
LCC: Z665 .G547 2011
RVK: AN 92900 ; AP 16100
7Floridi, L.: ¬The philosophy of information.
Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press, 2011. XVIII, 405 S.
Abstract: This is the first volume in the tetralogy on the foundations of the philosophy of information. The reader interested in an introduction to its topics may find Information - A very Short Introduction helpful. The book fulfils three goals. The first is metatheoretical. The book describes what the philosophy of information is, its open problems, and its methods. The second goal is introductory. The book analyses the complex and diverse nature of informational concepts and phenomena, and defends the veridicality thesis and a theory of strongly semantic information. The third goal is constructive. The book tackles some classic philosophical questions in information-theoretical terms, such as how symbols acquire their semantics (the symbol-grounding problem), whether knowledge may be something different from justified true belief (the Gettier problem), or what kind of realism may be more plausible in philosophy of science (the debate on structural realism). The essential message is quite straightforward. Semantic information is well-formed, meaningful and truthful data; knowledge is relevant semantic information properly accounted for; humans are the only known semantic engines and conscious informational organisms who can develop a growing knowledge of reality; and reality is the totality of information (notice the crucial absence of "semantic").
Inhalt: What is the philosophy of information?. Introduction ; Philosophy of artificial intelligence as a premature paradigm of PI ; The historical emergence of PI ; The dialectic of reflection and the emergence of PI ; The definition of PI ; The analytic approach to PI ; The metaphysical approach to PI ; PI as philosophia prima -- Open problems in the philosophy of information. Introduction ; David Hilbert's view ; Analysis ; Semantics ; Intelligence ; Nature ; Values -- The method of levels of abstraction. Introduction Some definitions and preliminary examples ; A classic interpretation of the method of abstraction ; Some philosophical applications ; The philosophy of the method of abstraction -- ; Semantic information and the veridicality thesis. Introduction ; The data-based approach to semantic information ; The general definition of information ; Understanding data ; Taxonomic neutrality ; Typological neutrality ; Ontological neutrality ; Genetic neutrality ; Alethic neutrality ; Why false information is not a kind of semantic information ; Why false information is pseudo-information : attributive vs predictive use ; Why false information is pseudo-information : a semantic argument ; The definition of semantic information -- Outline of a theory of strongly semantic information. Introduction ; The Bar-Hillel-Carnap paradox ; Three criteria of information equivalence ; Three desiderata for TSSI ; Degrees of vacuity and inaccuracy ; Degrees of informativeness ; Quantities of vacuity and of semantic information ; The solution of the Bar-Hillel-Carnap paradox ; TSSI and the scandal of deduction -- ; The symbol grounding problem. Introduction ; The symbol of grounding problem ; The representationalist approach ; The semi-representationalist approach ; The non-representationalist approach -- Action-based semantics. Introduction ; Action-based semantics ; Two-machine artificial agents and their AbS ; From grounded symbols to grounded communication and abstractions -- Semantic information and the correctness theory of truth. Introduction ; First step : translation ; Second step : polarization ; Third step : normalization ; Fourth step : verification and validation ; Fifth step : correctness ; Some implications and advantages of the correctness theory of truth -- The logical unsolvability of the Gettier problem. Introduction ; Why the Gettier problem is unsolvable in principle ; Three objections and replies -- The logic of being informed. Introduction ; Three logics of information ; Modelling "being informed" ; Four epistemological implications of KTB-IL -- Understanding epistemic relevance. Introduction ; Epistemic vs casual relevance ; The basic case ; A probabilistic revision of the basic case ; A counterfactual revision of the probabilistic analysis ; A metatheoretical revision of the counterfactual analysis ; Advantages of the metatheoretical revision ; Some illustrative cases ; Misinformation cannot be relevant ; Two objections and replies -- ; Semantic information and the network theory of account. Introduction ; The nature of the upgrading problem : mutual independence ; Solving the upgrading problem : the network theory of account ; Advantages of a network theory of account ; Testing the network theory of account -- Consciousness, agents, and the knowledge game. Introduction ; The knowledge game ; The first and classic version of the knowledge game : externally inferable states ; The second version of the knowledge game ; The third version of the knowledge game ; The fourth version of the knowledge game ; Dretske's question and the knowledge game -- Against digital ontology. Introduction ; What is digital ontology : It from bit ; The thought experiment ; Three objections and replies -- A defense of informational structural realism. Introduction ; First step : ESR and OSR are not compatible ; Second step : Relata are not logically prior to all relations ; Third step : the concept of a structural object is not empty ; Informational structural realism ; Ten objections and replies.
LCSH: Information science / Philosophy
RSWK: Informations- und Dokumentationswissenschaft / Philosophie / / Information / Informationstheorie / Philosophie
BK: 08.49 (Systematische Philosophie: Sonstiges) ; 06.00 (Information und Dokumentation: Allgemeines)
8Rubin, R.: Foundations of library and information science.3rd ed.
New York : Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2010. xv, 471 S.
Inhalt: The educational, recreational, and informational infrastructure -- From past to present : the history and mission of libraries -- Library and information science : an evolving profession -- The organization of information : techniques and issues -- The library as an institution : an organizational perspective -- Redefining the library : the impact and implications of technological change -- Information science : a service perspective -- Information policy : stakeholders and agendas -- Information policy as library policy : intellectual freedom -- The values and ethics of library and information science.
Anmerkung: Rez. in BuB 63(2011) H.11/12, S.821-822 (K. Umlauf): "... Das mit 40 Seiten vergleichsweise kurze Kapitel rückt die Dimensionen von Themen wie Klassifikation, Thesauri, Katalogisierung, Bibliografien, Indexe, Datenformate, semantisches Web und Metatdaten in die richtige Dimension..."
Wissenschaftsfach: Bibliothekswesen ; Informationswissenschaft
RSWK: Bibliothekswissenschaft ; Informations- und Dokumentationswissenschaft
DDC: 020.973 / dc22
GHBS: BAHM (FH K) ; AUB (PB)
LCC: Z665.2.U6 R83 2010
9Crowley, W.: Spanning the theory-practice divide in library and information science.
Lanham, MD : Scarecrow Press, 2005. xiv, 241 S.
Inhalt: Theorizing for diverging contexts : why research results and theory development are so little used outside the campus -- Developing a research philosophy -- The revival of pragmatism -- Tacit knowledge: bridging the theory-practice divide -- The academic as practitioner -- The practitioner as academic: adjunct facility/lecturers -- Other worlds of practice: the field practitioner -- Other worlds of practice: the consultant -- Theory and revelation -- The foundations for building bridges.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST. 58(2007) no.4, S.606-607 (L.E. Harris): "Spanning is not a methodological "how-to"; rather it is a "how-tothink" book, intended for academicians and practitioners, on developing useful theory. Each chapter opens with a brief scenario, generally derived from Crowley's extensive personal experience as a librarian, university professor, and consultant, exemplifying the theme for that chapter. In chapter one, "Theorizing for Diverging Contexts: Why Research Results and Theory Development are So Little Used Outside the Campus," Crowley describes a doctoral candidate's experience in presenting her research at a national conference of working professionals. When the presentation is negatively received, the student's mentor rationalized the response by stating, "You have to remember, most of the people in the audience only have a master's degree" (p. 2). From this example, a cogent argument is distilled on how pervasive the theorypractice divide is in various academic domains, such as business, law, sociology, and LIS. What is useful research and theory for academicians seeking career and professional advancement does not translate into for practitioners engaged in specific institutional/organizational environments. Cultural pragmatism is introduced as an aid to researchers in both camps for its inclusion of context specificity and the need for testing a theory's usefulness through continually analyzed experience. Herein, the structural foundation for the bridge is constructed in the section on communication. The development of an interlanguage between academicians and practitioners will minimize incommensurability, "the perceived inability of humans to communicate effectively with one another due to a lack of common standards for meaning and other shared foundations" (p. 15). In this vein, Crowley presents five maxims, based on the works of John Stuart Mill, for developing useful, real world theory. The chapter ends, as do several others, addressing the divide specifically in the LIS domain. One of the most thought-provoking chapters is "Developing a Research Philosophy," which includes sections on inductive reasoning, how people really think, and a discussion of the battle between intellectual formations and internalized models. As a teacher of experienced and/or mature students in an LIS program, I instantly recognized the description of a reoccurring classroom event: what happens when introducing theory or research results that contradict students' experiences, and therefore, their internalized models of "how things really work in the field." Crowley suggests that in seeking a research philosophy, persuasion should not be a primary concern. This simple suggestion encouraged me to reconsider my posture when faced with this classroom issue. However, this chapter may be considered one of the weakest in the book, because of its rather slim treatment of considerations for selecting a useful research philosophy, despite the emphasis on the importance of the concept. Nevertheless, this chapter is foundational to the work presented in the remaining chapters. ; In "The Revival of Pragmatism," the distinction between theory (how things work) and paradigm (how we look at the world) forms the basis for the exposition on competing paradigms. From Kuhn's traditional scientific paradigm (empiricism) to classical pragmatism, to the variants of modernism, specifically critical theory and feminism, the ability of cultural pragmatism to bridge the divide is promoted. The twelve core assertions and the role of religious beliefs in the creation of classical pragmatism are surely the stuff of which debates are made. While I was readily able to accept the first ten assertions, the eleventh ("Humans have the most opportunity to develop their capabilities in a democracy.") and twelfth ("Scientific and other knowledge progresses best in a democratic context that encourages freedom of inquiry.") certainly gave me pause (p. 60). Even Crowley admits, later in the text, that these two assertions may not be verifiable and indeed may conflict with the principle of freedom in research. In defining the applicability of cultural pragmatism to bridging the theory-practice gap, Crowley relates John Dewey's desire to rename his Experience and Nature to read Culture and Nature as a tribute to the power of readers' ability to understand the meaning of culture versus experience. Drawing on the work of Charles Sanders Peirce, cultural pragmatism treats "truth" as agreed-upon opinion, which is therefore continually tested and revised. The concepts of interlanguage and incommensurability are revisited, as they apply to the need to transcend cultural norms and create cross-cultural understandings. The increased complexity of modern work, partially related to the pervasiveness of technology, is established as an obvious factor. As a result, the validity and reliability of generalizing in a global environment is called into question. Cultural pragmatism does not demand an adherence to an objective reality. "For pragmatism, cultural complexity can be an intellectual positive, offering a seemingly endless source of remarkably interesting research questions" (p. 82). This chapter is highly recommended for LIS professionals interested in a brief yet coherent overview of the prevailing paradigms discussed and utilized in the field, as well as those who like to stir up lively discussions. A description of how the Maryland Division of Library Developments improved reference service by turning tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge opens the next chapter, "Tacit Knowledge: Bridging the Theory-Practice Divide." This example illustrates concretely the impact of an interlanguage on communication effectiveness within a library setting and as part of a research project. The role of time in the transformation of tacit into explicit knowledge, however, is apparent yet not fully explored. In this chapter, Crowley directly addresses the "how-to-think" issues and the role of a research philosophy as structural components of the bridge. Tacit knowledge becomes an integral component which researchers must recognize if they are to construct useful research and theory. The discussion of Georg Simmel's stranger as an analytical tool, however, seemed out of place. ; In the next four chapters, Crowley takes on the particulars involved in the divide by looking at library and information professionals engaged in and transitioning to various research and theory development roles. In "The Academic as Practitioner," he examines how the publishing world influences how academics communicate with practitioners and the difficulties in writing for practitioner-oriented publications. The history of religion in the development of higher education in general, and the research focus of doctoral-degree granting institutions, is offered to explain the dominance of the academic practitioner. The paradoxical edicts of the Ohio legislature, which sought to balance classroom time for professors by law, paint a vivid picture of the results-oriented public and the research-oriented academic institution. In "The Practitioner as Academic: Adjunct Faculty/Lecturers," the question of the perceived lack of "rigor" in practitioner-conducted research is illustrated and illuminated. While Crowley points out the value of "how we did it good" research, as providing material for qualitative analysis, I found myself desiring a bit more methodological instruction. Given where and when such articles are published, how such qualitative analysis could be conducted called the value of this research into question, given the prior treatise on conducting research in an academic environment. "Other Worlds of Practice: The Field Practitioner" and "Other Worlds of Practice: The Consultant" are extremely short expositions which, while addressing alternative professionals' roles, do not significantly further the premise of the work. Nonetheless, Crowley might have been considered remiss if he had excluded these professionals. ; "Theory and Revelation" is devoted to encouraging LIS researchers, in any capacity, not to dismiss the role of faith, beliefs, and religion. The ending section presents "A Nine-Step Model for Pragmatic Research," which stops just short of being a "how-to" by not elucidating on the methodological considerations for each step. The model, while textual, bears a striking resemblance to the flow charts for approaching research found in many research instructional works, even though the entertaining of "solutions" to problems is an iterative element of the process. The text concludes with "The Foundations for Building Bridges," a fivepage summary section, almost woefully inadequate given the substantial issues developed and presented throughout the work. Crowley must be commended for his comprehensive approach to the subject, the detailed annotations, the glossary, the summary of works cited, and the index. The format of starting each chapter with a themed scenario prevented the writing from becoming dry and sleepinducing. Most of the chapters end with a specific section addressing how the issues relate to LIS. The overall structure of the text follows logically from the more theoretical to the more applicable. However, there is a definite bias towards occurrences where practitioners and academicians tend to co-exist and function in a research environment, i.e., library science and academic institutions. Information professionals working in public and community college libraries are discussed in a rather superficial manner. How cultural pragmatism can influence research and theory centered in the information science domain must still be considered in more depth than presented in this text. Further expansion on, and a critical analysis of, cultural pragmatism as a metatheoretical perspective is definitely in order. Hopefully, Spanning the Theory-Practice Divide in Library and Information Science will be an introduction to the use of cultural pragmatism in LIS research and in the development of useful theory. In response to an e-mail from me upon first reading the text, the author informed me of his contact with several other doctoral students interested in furthering their understanding of cultural pragmatism. Inspiring other professionals is certainly a testament to the value of the work and supports my recommendation for this text as essential reading for LIS professionals interested in producing research and theory that are truly useful."
Wissenschaftsfach: Bibliothekswesen ; Informationswissenschaft
LCSH: Information science ; Library science ; Learning and scholarship
RSWK: USA / Bibliothekswissenschaft / Informations- und Dokumentationswissenschaft
BK: 06.04 / Ausbildung, Beruf, Organisationen
; 06.00 / Information und Dokumentation: Allgemeines
DDC: 020 / dc22
LCC: Z665.C786 2005
RVK: AN 65800
10Hacker, G. u. T. Seela (Hrsg.): Bibliothek leben : Das deutsche Bibliothekswesen als Aufgabe für Wissenschaft und Politik. Eine Festschrift für Engelbert Plassmann zum 70. Geburtstag.
Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 2005. 320 S.
Inhalt: Enthält die Beiträge: Retrospektiven Hans-Michael Schäfer: "Warum baut ein Privatmann eine Bibliothek" - Die Bibliothek Warburg inmitten der preußisch dominierten Bibliothekslandschaft zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts; Horst Röhling: Slavica und Universales im wissenschaftlich-politischen und anthropologischen Kontext der Bibliothek; Dale Askey: Bibliothekstourismus zwischen Deutschland und den Vereinigten Staaten; Hans-Christoph Hobohm: Bibliothek als Zensur; Günter Pflug: Die Ausbildung des höheren Bibliotheksdienstes nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg; Konrad Umlauf: Bibliotheksentwicklungsplanung 1966 bis 1973 und Bibliotheken 2007; Hans Joachim Meyer: Kontinuität und Neubeginn - Sächsische Bibliothekspolitik nach 1990; Siegfried Schmidt: Eine verpaßte Gelegenheit? - Gründe und Hintergründe zur Schließung der Fachhochschule für das öffentliche Bibliothekswesen Bonn; Walther Umstätter: Bibliothekswissenschaft im Spannungsfeld von Bibliotheksgeschichte, Nationalökonomie des Geistes und Informatik; Helmut Jüngling: Themen à la mode -Versuch einer informetrischen Analyse informationswissenschaftlicher Datenbanken; Perspektiven Wolfgang Schmitz: "Gemeinsam können wir viel bewirken" - Die gemeinsamen Fachbibliotheken von USB und Instituten an der Universität zu Köln; Jürgen Hering: Vier Buchstaben und etwas Farbe - Zum Erscheinungsbild der SLUB in der Öffentlichkeit; Ludger Syré: Haben Regionalbibliotheken eine Zukunft? - Zeitgemäße Betrachtungen zu einem scheinbar unzeitgemäßen Bibliothekstyp; Gudrun Behm-Steidel: Spezialbibliotheken in Deutschland - Nische im Bibliothekswesen oder Vorreiter im Informationsmanagement?; Regina Peeters: Auf der Kuhstraße zur Weltliteratur oder: Jedes Lesen ist Übersetzen; Holger Knudsen: Die International Association of Law Libraries (IALL); Torsten Seela: Bibliotheken und Museen als Informationsdienstleister -Konvergenzen und Divergenzen; Christian Uhlig: Buchhandel und Bibliotheken - Konfrontation oder Kooperation?; Reimar Riese: Macht unsere Bücher preiswerter! - Die Preiswürdigkeit von Büchern im Meinungsbild ihrer Konsumenten; Gerhard Hacker: Die Hybridbibliothek - Blackbox oder Ungeheuer?; Jürgen Seefeldt: Die Zukunft der Bibliothek - die Bibliothek der Zukunft: Visionen, Traumschlösser, Realitäten
LCSH: Library science / Germany ; Libraries / Germany ; Libraries and booksellers / Germany
RSWK: Deutschland / Bibliothek / Aufsatzsammlung ; Deutschland / Bibliothekspolitik / Geschichte 1900-2005 / Aufsatzsammlung
BK: 06.30 Bibliothekswesen ; 06.40 Bibliotheksarten
DDC: 020.943 / dc22
GHBS: AUEP (E) ; BAC (FH K)
KAB: BF F 433.10
LCC: Z665.2.G3B49 2005
RVK: AN 51000 Allgemeines / Buch- und Bibliothekswesen, Informationswissenschaft / Bibliothekswesen / Bibliographien, Sammelschriften / Fest- und Gedenkschriften für Personen
11Warner, J.: Humanizing information technology.
Lanham, MD : Scarecrow Press, 2004. 143 S.
Inhalt: An information view of history -- Organs of the human brain, created by the human hand : toward an understanding of information technology -- Information society or cash nexus? : a study of the United States as a copyright haven -- As sharp as a pen : direct semantic ratification in oral, written, and electronic communication -- In the catalogue ye go for men : evaluation criteria for information retrieval systems -- Meta- and object-language for information retrieval research : proposal for a distinction -- Forms of labor in information systems -- W(h)ither information science?
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST. 56(2003) no.12, S.1360 (C.Tomer): "Humanizing Information Technology is a collection of essays that represent what are presumably Julian Warner's best efforts to understand the perpetually nascent discipline of information science and its relationship to information technology. It is clearly a formidable task. Warner succeeds occasionally in this endeavor; more often, he fails. Yet, it would be wrong to mark Humanizing Information Technology as a book not worth reading. On the contrary, though much fault was found and this review is far from positive, it was nevertheless a book well-worth reading. That Humanizing Information Technology succeeds at all is in some ways remarkable, because Warner's prose tends to be dense and graceless, and understanding his commentaries often relies an close readings of a wide array of sources, some of them familiar, many of them less so. The inaccessibility of Warner's prose is unfortunate; there is not a single idea in Humanizing Information Technology so complicated that it could not have been stated in a clear, straightforward manner. The failure to establish a clear, sufficiently füll context for the more obscure sources is an even more serious problem. Perhaps the most conspicuous example of this problem stems from the frequent examination of the concept of the "information society" and the related notion of information as an autonomous variable, each of them ideas drawn largely from Frank Webster's 1995 book, Theories of the Information Society. Several of Warner's essays contain passages in Humanizing Information Technology whose meaning and value are largely dependent an a familiarity with Webster's work. Yet, Warner never refers to Theories of the Information Society in more than cursory terms and never provides a context füll enough to understand the particular points of reference. Suffice it to say, Humanizing Information Technology is not a book for readers who lack patience or a thorough grounding in modern intellectual history. Warner's philosophical analyses, which frequently exhibit the meter, substance, and purpose of a carefully crafted comprehensive examination, are a large part of what is wrong with Humanizing Information Technology. Warner's successes come when he turns his attention away from Marxist scholasticism and toward historical events and trends. "Information Society or Cash Nexus?" the essay in which Warner compares the role of the United States as a "copyright haven" for most of the 19th century to modern China's similar status, is successful because it relies less an abstruse analysis and more an a sharply drawn comparison of the growth of two economies and parallel developments in the treatment of intellectual property. The essay establishes an illuminating context and cites historical precedents in the American experience suggesting that China's official positions toward intellectual property and related international conventions are likely to evolve and grow more mature as its economy expands and becomes more sophisticated. Similarly, the essay entitled "In the Catalogue Ye Go for Men" is effective because Warner comes dangerously close to pragmatism when he focuses an the possibility that aligning cataloging practice with the "paths and tracks" of discourse and its analysis may be the means by which to build more information systems that furnish a more direct basis for intellectual exploration. ; Like Daniel Bell, the author of The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (1973), who used aspects of Marx's thinking as the basis for his social forecasting models, Warner uses Marxist thought as a tool for social and historical analysis. Unlike Bell, Warner's approach to Marx tends to be doctrinaire. As a result, "An Information View of History" and "Origins of the Human Brain," two of the essays in which Warner sets out to establish the connections between information science and information technology, are less successful. Warner argues, "the classic source for an understanding of technology as a human construction is Marx," and that "a Marxian perspective an information technology could be of high marginal Utility," noting additionally that with the exception of Norbert Wiener and John Desmond Bernal, "there has only been a limited penetration of Marxism into information science" (p. 9). But Warner's efforts to persuade the reader that these views are cogent never go beyond academic protocol. Nor does his support for the assertion that the second half of the 19th century was the critical period for innovation and diffusion of modern information technologies. The closing essay, "Whither Information Science?" is particularly disappointing, in part, because the preface and opening chapters of the book promised more than was delivered at the end. Warner asserts that the theoretical framework supporting information science is negligible, and that the discipline is limited even further by the fact that many of its members do not recognize or understand the effects of such a limitation. However cogent the charges may be, none of this is news. But the essay fails most notably because Warner does not have any new directions to offer, save that information scientists should pay closer artention to what is going an in allied disciplines. Moreover, he does not seem to understand that at its heart the "information revolution" is not about the machines, but about the growing legions of men and women who can and do write programming code to exert control over and find new uses for these devices. Nor does he seem to understand that information science, in the grip of what he terms a "quasi-global crisis," suffers grievously because it is a community situated not at the center but rather an the periphery of this revolution."
LCSH: Information science ; Information technology / Social aspects ; Information society ; Information storage and retrieval systems
RSWK: Informationsgesellschaft / Informationstechnik / Information-Retrieval-System / Informationsspeicher
DDC: 303.48/33 / dc22
LCC: Z665.W27 2004
RVK: MS 7850
12Wegmann, N.: Bücherlabyrinthe : Suchen und Finden im alexandrinischen Zeitalter.
Wien : Böhlau, 2000. xii, 368 S.
Abstract: Ein Buch ist ein Buch ist ein Buch. Bücher sind Informationsträger, kulturelle Identitätsträger und Kultobjekte. Sie werden geschrieben, gelesen und gesammelt, katalogisiert, klassifiziert, rezensiert. Das Buch ist eine der Säulen der abendländischen Zivilisation. Seit sich unbedarften Beobachtern das Ende der Gutenberg-Galaxie anzubahnen scheint, ist auch das öffentliche Interesse am Buch gestiegen. Nikolaus Wegmann hat sich in seiner kürzlich erschienenen Habilitationsschrift mit dem Suchen und Finden von Büchern beschäftigt und dabei eine breite Palette von Themen gestreift: Von der Bibliothek als Moloch und Mülldeponie über die Bedeutung von Katalogen bis hin zur poststrukturalistischen Literaturtheorie reicht sein Spektrum. Die Bibliothek, so lesen wir, ist nicht nur «simpler Einstellplatz für Bücher», sondern eine «hochkomplexe technische Installation, in der sich epistemologische, soziale wie politische und zunehmend auch kommerzielle Elemente bündeln». Doch wie kann die Bibliothek diese Funktionen heute alle wahrnehmen, wenn in den ersten 450 Jahren nach der Einführung des Buchdruckes durch Johannes Gutenberg rund 10 Millionen Bücher gedruckt wurden, zurzeit aber jedes Jahr eine Million erscheinen, die in den Regalen der Bibliotheken gesammelt und katalogisiert werden sollten? Was also soll in der Bibliothek gesammelt werden? Ausserdem: Wie lässt sich das Gesammelte wieder finden? Wegmann beschreibt nicht die bibliothekswissenschaftlichen oder informationswissenschaftlichen Debatten, die in letzten Jahren zu dieser Frage geführt wurden, sondern er untersucht die kulturwissenschaftliche Praxis von Buchmenschen quer durch die Geschichte. Das ist ein neuer und anregender Ansatz. Sein Buch hebt sich damit wohltuend ab von der Flut bibliothekswissenschaftlicher Elaborate, die mehr oder weniger geistreich das Ende der Gutenberg-Galaxie bejammern. Wegmann interpretiert viele Themen gegen den Strich, argumentiert nicht selten originell und mit einem breiten Wissen. Nicht immer ist dem Leser der rote Faden der Untersuchung präsent, zu oft plaudert Wegmann einige Seiten lang über Nebensächlichkeiten und Details. Doch ist nicht gerade dies - Lektüre als vom Autor geplante Reise des Lesers - der Vorzug des Buches?
Inhalt: Zugleich Habil.-Schrift Uni Köln
Anmerkung: Rez. in: Zfbb 49(2002) H.3, S.178 (U. Schneider)
LCSH: Libraries / History ; Library science / History ; Books and reading / History
RSWK: Buch / Bibliothek / Leser / Literatur / Geschichte ; Bibliothek / Theorie / Literaturwissenschaft ; Buchproduktion / Wachstum / Buch / Sammeln / Bibliophilie / Hochschulschrift / Geschichte (SBPK) ; Bibliothek / Aufsatzsammlung (ÖVK) ; Bibliothek / Literaturrecherche (BVB)
BK: 06.30 / Bibliothekswesen / Dokumentationswesen: Allgemeines ; 06.21 Buchgeschichte ; 06.24 / Bibliophilie / private Buchsammlungen ; 06.60 Bibliotheksbenutzung
DDC: 027/.09 / dc21
GHBS: AUB (DU) ; BOSB (DU) ; CJSB (DU) ; AUA (DU) ; AYC (HA) ; BAHM (FH K)
LCC: Z665.W39 2000
RVK: AN 65000 Allgemeines / Buch- und Bibliothekswesen, Informationswissenschaft / Bibliothekswesen / Grundlagen des Bibliothekswesens / Allgemeines
13Abbott, R.: ¬The world as information : overload and personal design.
Exeter : Intellect Books, 1999. 155 S.
Abstract: This book takes the broadest view of information, considering it as a phenomenon in its own roght, rather than exploring the technology for handling it. It is very much concerned with the meaning of information - and what we as individuals do with it
Anmerkung: Rez. in: Knowledge organization 26(1999) no.2, S.104-105 (M. Dowding)
LCSH: Information science ; Information organization
RSWK: Informationstechnik (SWB)
BK: 71.43 / Technologische Faktoren
; 02.10 / Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft ; 02.20 / Wissenschaftsinformation
DDC: 020 / dc21
LCC: Z665.A175 1999
RVK: AP 16100 Allgemeines / Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaften, Kommunikationsdesign / Aussagefunktion und Aussagegestaltung / Unterrichtung (Information) ; MS 7850 Soziologie / Spezielle Soziologien / Soziologie der Massenkommunikation und öffentlichen Meinung / Allgemeine Theorie der gesellschaftlichen Kommunikation und ihrer Medien; Begriff der Öffentlichkeit; Meinungsbildung, public relations