Document (#31125)

Author
Huberman, B.
Title
¬The laws of the Web: : patterns in the ecology of information
Imprint
Cambridge, MA : MIT Press
Year
2001
Pages
X, 105 S
Isbn
0-262-08303-5
Footnote
Rez. in: nfd 54(2003) H.8, S.497 (T. Mandl): "Gesetze der digitalen Anarchie - Hyperlinks im Internet entstehen als Ergebnis sozialer Prozesse und können auch als formaler Graph im Sinne der Mathematik interpretiert werden. Die Thematik Hyperlinks ist im Information Retrieval höchst aktuell, da Suchmaschinen die Link-Struktur bei der Berechnung ihrer Ergebnisse berücksichtigen. Algorithmen zur Bestimmung des "guten Rufs" einer Seite wie etwa PageRank von Google gewichten eine Seite höher, wenn viele links auf sie verweisen. Zu den neuesten Erkenntnissen über die Netzwerkstruktur des Internets liegen zwei sehr gut lesbare Bücher vor. Der Autor des ersten Buchs, der Wirtschaftswissenschaftler Huberman, ist Leiter einer Forschungsabteilung bei Hewlett Packard. Huberman beschreibt in seinem Buch zunächst die Geschichte des Internet als technologische Revolution und gelangt dann schnell zu dessen Evolution und den darin vorherrschenden Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilungen. Oberraschenderweise treten im Internet häufig power-law Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilungen auf, die der Zipf'schen Verteilung ähneln. Auf diese sehr ungleichen Aufteilungen etwa von eingehenden HypertextLinks oder Surfern pro Seite im Internet bezieht sich der Titel des Buchs. Diese immer wieder auftretenden Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilungen scheinen geradezu ein Gesetz des Internet zu bilden. So gibt es z.B. viele Sites mit sehr wenigen Seiten und einige wenige mit Millionen von Seiten, manche Seiten werden selten besucht und andere ziehen einen Großteil des Internet-Verkehrs auf sich, auf die meisten Seiten verweisen sehr wenige Links während auf einige wenige populäre Seiten Millionen von Links zielen. Das vorletzte Kapitel widmen übrigens beide Autoren den Märkten im Internet. Spätestens hier werden die wirtschaftlichen Aspekte von Netzwerken deutlich. Beide Titel führen den Leser in die neue Forschung zur Struktur des Internet als Netzwerk und sind leicht lesbar. Beides sind wissenschaftliche Bücher, wenden sich aber auch an den interessierten Laien. Das Buch von Barabási ist etwas aktueller, plauderhafter, länger, umfassender und etwas populärwissenschaftlicher."
Theme
Internet
LCSH
Internet searching
World Wide Web / Social aspects
RSWK
Internet / Online-Recherche
DDC
025.04
RVK
ST 201 I65
AP 18500

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