Document (#33593)

Author
Reischer, J.
Title
Zeichen - Information - Kommunikation : Analyse und Synthese des Zeichen- und Informationsbegriffs
Issue
Version 1 vom 22.11.2006.
Source
http://www.opus-bayern.de/uni-regensburg/volltexte/2006/740/pdf/ZeichenInfoKomm.pdf
Pages
309 S
Abstract
Wer über Information redet oder schreibt, sticht in ein Hornissennest und setzt sich anschließend darauf. Die Konfrontation mit dem heiligen Gral der Wissenschaften beschwört nicht selten ein vielfaches Echo herauf, dessen Resonanz ein dickes Trommelfell erfordert. Das allpräsente Informationskonzept tönt aus fast allen wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen wie ein Reviergesang, mit dem die alleinige Dominanz über die Domäne der Information beansprucht wird. Der Reiz des Themas pervertiert dabei zum Reizthema, in dessen Gefilde die Wissenschaftler verschiedenster Fachrichtungen dem Reizklima interdisziplinäre Verspannungen und Missverständnisse ausgesetzt sind. Das Zauber- und Modewort des alten wie neuen Jahrtausends war nach und nach in nahezu alle Kultur- und Naturwissenschaften vorgedrungen und hatte dort begonnen, auf dem jeweiligen Nährboden ein Eigenleben zu entfalten. So erstaunt es nicht, wenn der Informationsbegriff heute ein Konglomerat unterschiedlicher Verständnisse aus einzelnen Disziplinen und Fachsprachen darstellt, gepaart mit den Verwendungsweisen der Alltagssprache. Der Informationsbegriff ist dadurch zu einem babylonischen Konzept geworden, das nurmehr Sprachverwirrung stiftet. Es scheint die Sisyphosaufgabe unserer Zeit, das Knäuel zu durchschlagen.
Es ist schon eine merkwürdige Ironie, dass wir (angeblich) im Informationszeitalter leben, das uns die Informationsgesellschaft gebracht hat, in der wir die Informationstechnik verwenden, nur um in der Informationsflut zu versinken - und ohne genau bestimmen zu können, was für eine Art Treibstoff Information tatsächlich ist, mit dem wir unsere Informationsmaschine Gehirn betreiben. Dabei scheitern wir nicht nur an der Frage, wo Information herkommt, was sie ist und wie sie wirkt; unser mentaler Motor gerät auch dann ins Stocken, wenn wir uns mit zu wenig oder zu viel Information abplagen müssen. Die Fluten des Internets mit seinem schwer konsumier- und verdaubaren Treibgut an World Wide Waste lassen uns auf einer Datenmüllhalde surfen, anstatt die Informationsnuggets zu schürfen. Der Unbedarfte wird diesen Unterschied freilich kaum bemerken, zumal die fast vollständige Durchdringung des alltäglichen Lebens mit Information und seinen nächsten Verwandten einen differenzierten und distanzierten Blick verstellt. Wenn wir von Information reden, konzentrieren wir hierin nichts weniger als das gesamte Spektrum menschlichen Selbstverständnisses: Zeichen, Sprache, Kommunikation, Handlung, Lektion, Kognition, Repräsentation, Erkenntnis. Information bestimmt (über) den Menschen wie kein anderes Element, sie ist Grundstoff und treibende Kraft unseres informationellen Metabolismus, der uns am (Er-)Leben hält.
Die Begründung einer Zeichentypologie durch die beiden entscheidenden semiotischen Merkmale der Arbitrarität vs. Natürlichkeit und Konstanz vs. Varianz im Verhältnis von Notation und Denotation ermöglicht es uns, Zeichen nach ihrem Informationsgehalt in der Sprache auch außerhalb einer Sprechsituation zu hinterfragen und die allgemein durch ein Zeichen vermittelbare semantisch-begriffliche Information unter Absehung von einem bestimmten Sprecher und seinen Intentionen zu betrachten [vgl. hierzu auch Reischer 2006]. Konstant-arbiträre Zeichen wie sprachliche Symbole besitzen Denotation aufgrund ihrer konventionalen Bindung eines Inhalts bzw. einer Funktion an eine Notation, die von allen Sprechern einer Sprache geteilt wird. Dieses geteilte Sprach- und Bedeutungswissen erst ermöglicht überhaupt geregelte Kommunikation und die gezielte Vermittlung von Information dergestalt, dass ein sprachlicher Ausdruck - vom einzelnen Wort bis zum ganzen Text - eine oder mehrere festgelegte Bedeutungen hat, die durch Kontext und Sprecher nurmehr variiert werden (durch Selektion oder Spezifikation seiner Bedeutung); d.h. es besteht in der Sprechergemeinschaft unausgesprochene Einigkeit darüber, welche Inhalte im Normalfall und allgemein mit einem Ausdruck vermittelt werden können. Jeder extern realisierte, medial(isiert)e Text ist als Manifestation eines lexikalischen und grammatikalischen Ausschnitts einer Sprache zu betrachten; als solcher stellt er mediale Information dar, der potenziell semantischen Informationsgehalt im Sinne der im Hörer erzielbaren Kenntnis und Erkenntnis aufweist. Die Stellung eines lexikalischen Ausdrucks innerhalb eines Sprach- bzw. Begriffssystems bestimmt mit, welche und wie viel semantische Information durch ihn vermittelt werden kann.
Content
Inhalt: 1 Einleitung 2 Drei Zeichentheorien 2.1 Saussures Zeichenkonzeption 2.2 Morris' Zeichenkonzeption 2.3 Kellers Zeichenkonzeption 3 Vier Informationstheorien 3.1 Nauta 3.2 Fox 3.3 Janich 3.4 Kuhlen 4 Informationsbegriffe in den Sprachen 5 Informationsverständnisse im Detail 5.1 Vermeintlich einheitliche Informationsbegriffe 5.2 Eine semiotische Informationskonzeption 5.3 Semiotische Konzeptionen und Terminologien 5.4 Eine einheitliche Informationsterminologie 6 Das Informationspotenzial von Zeichen
Theme
Information

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  4. Lochmann, D.: Vom Wesen der Information : eine allgemeinverständliche Betrachtung über Information in der Gesellschaft, in der Natur und in der Informationstheorie (2004) 0.20
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  5. Janich, P.: Informationsbegriff und methodisch-kulturalistische Philosophie (1998) 0.18
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