Document (#27859)

Author
Fuhrmann, M.
Title
Bildung : Europas kulturelle Identität
Imprint
Stuttgart : Reclam
Year
2002
Pages
111 S
Isbn
3-15-018182-8
Series
Reclams Universal-Bibliothek; 18182
Abstract
"Bildung" und "Kultur" sind zerredete, missbrauchte, geschundene Wörter. Vielleicht täte es ihnen gut, wenn sie eine Zeit lang geschont würden. Andererseits ist das, was sie bezeichnen oder einmal bezeichnet haben, wichtig. Sie sind es wert, dass man sich über sie verständigt. Es fehlt auch nicht an Anzeichen, dass wieder ein Bedürfnis nach Verständigung besteht. Das letzte große Gespräch über Bildungsangelegenheiten liegt jetzt mehr als ein Vierteljahrhundert zurück. Damals waren einige Bücher erschienen, die Aufsehen erregt hatten, wie die Deutsche Bildungskatastrophe von Georg Picht (Olten/Freiburg i. Br. 1964) oder Bildung ist Bürgerrecht von Ralf Dahrendorf (Hamburg 1965). Und bald darauf, in den Jahren 1974-1976, wurde die einschneidendste Maßnahme vollzogen, die das deutsche Schulwesen seit den Tagen Humboldts erlebt hat, die Reform der gymnasialen Oberstufe. Dergleichen ist jetzt nicht geschehen. Es sind offenbar allgemeine Entwicklungen, die nachdenklich stimmen. Den alten Medien haben sich unlängst die neuen zugesellt, so dass allerorten, wie wohl nicht ohne Grund behauptet wird, das Zeitalter der Informationsgesellschaft begonnen hat. Außerdem haben jetzt die so genannten Lebenswissenschaften dank ihrer spektakulären Fortschritte eine Bahn eingeschlagen, die in ganz anderer Weise bisher für unumstößlich Geltendes in Frage zu stellen scheint. Schließlich der schleichende Prozess des Traditionsverfalls: er hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten derart beschleunigt, dass man versucht ist, ihn für ein Indiz einer Schwellenzeit zu halten, einer historischen Zäsur, wie Europa sie bislang nur selten erlebt hat. Auf diesen Hintergrund will die vorliegende Schrift über Bildung bezogen werden. Neue Bildung für die Zukunft hat schon genug Konjunktur: bei Politikern, Wirtschaftsleuten und Wissenschaftsfunktionären. Hier geht es demgegenüber um alte Bildung, um Bildung aus der Vergangenheit. Der Verfasser hält Bildung für eine Form des Bewahrens, wie die Religion oder die Moral, d. h., sie hat seiner Überzeugung nach neben anderem den Zweck, Tradition zu sichern. Hiermit ist gesagt, dass Bildung der Inhalte bedarf, der christlichen vor allem und der humanistischen. Zwar läuft man Gefahr, sich unbeliebt zu machen, wenn man von Bildung handelt und hiermit bestimmte Inhalte meint; dergleichen gilt jetzt oft als Dünkel. Dies scheint auch der Grund zu sein, weshalb die genannten Funktionäre, wenn sie über Bildung reden, in Abstraktionen - wie Verantwortung, soziale Gerechtigkeit usw. - schwelgen und inhaltliche Festlegungen peinlich meiden. Gleichwohl wird in dieser Schrift der Versuch unternommen, an Bildung als an etwas durch Inhalte Bestimmtes zu erinnern, als an eine im Lauf der Geschichte gewachsene, keineswegs auf blutleere Begriffe beschränkte Überlieferung, die auch der Gegenwart noch bewahrenswert erscheinen sollte. Die Schrift befasst sich diesen Maximen gemäß zu einem guten Teil mit Vergangenem, insbesondere mit der bürgerlichen Epoche, deren Untergang die Älteren unter den jetzt noch Lebenden sich haben vollziehen sehen. Der erste Abschnitt gibt einen Überblick über die leitenden Ideen des europäischen Schulwesens; der zweite erörtert den Kontrast von europäischem Bildungskanon und deutscher Bildungsidee. Die drei übrigen Abschnitte suchen nachzuzeichnen, was aus der alten Bildung und ihren Institutionen im 20. Jahrhundert geworden ist. Es geht dort um das Verschwinden des humanistischen Gymnasiums und die Formierung der >Erlebnisgesellschaft<, um die noch intakte Philosophische Fakultät und deren Sinnkrise und schließlich um ein auffälliges Defizit des gegenwärtigen Religionsunterrichts. Die Schrift ist aus einer Reihe von Vorträgen hervorgegangen, die der Verfasser in Anlehnung an sein Buch Der europäische Bildungskanon des bürgerlichen Zeitalters (Frankfurt a. M. 1999) auf Bitten verschiedener Institutionen gehalten hat.
Field
Wissenschaftstheorie
Location
D

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  5. Bates, A.W.: Virtuell, global, zielgruppenorientiert : Der Einfluss der neuen Medien auf die Universität (2000) 0.23
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