Document (#27966)

Author
Lyre, H.
Title
Information in den Naturwissenschaften
Source
Grundlagen der praktischen Information und Dokumentation. 5., völlig neu gefaßte Ausgabe. 2 Bde. Hrsg. von R. Kuhlen, Th. Seeger u. D. Strauch. Begründet von Klaus Laisiepen, Ernst Lutterbeck, Karl-Heinrich Meyer-Uhlenried. Bd.1: Handbuch zur Einführung in die Informationswissenschaft und -praxis
Imprint
München : Saur
Year
2004
Pages
S.739-743
Abstract
Der Begriff der Information ist bis heute kein eigentlicher Fachterminus der Naturwissenschaften, findet aber dennoch Eingang und zunehmende Verwendung vor allem in Physik, Biologie und den kognitiven Neurowissenschaften. Dabei divergieren die jeweiligen spezifischen Verwendungsweisen des Informationsbegriffs in den verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und auch der Mathematik zum Teil erheblich und sind in aller Regel nicht mit einem Alltagsverständnis von Information als Nachricht oder Wissen gleichzusetzen. Statt dessen stützt man sich vorrangig auf die Formalisierung von syntaktischer Information im Rahmen der Shannonschen Informationstheorie, also im Kern auf die von Hartley 1928 eingeführte Definition I = - In p, die den Informationsgehalt eines Zeichens daran koppelt, wie unwahrscheinlich das Zeichen in seinem Auftreten ist. Die Shannonsche Theorie erlaubt eine differenzierte mathematische Handhabung von Kanalkapazitäten, Redundanz- und Codierungsformen, die als Grundlage beinahe sämtlicher Verwendungen von Information in den Naturwissenschaften dient.
Theme
Information
Field
Naturwissenschaften

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