Document (#27976)

Author
Nohr, H.
Title
Wissen und Wissensprozesse visualisieren
Source
http://www.hbi-stuttgart.de/nohr/Km/KmAP/KmAP.htm
Imprint
Stuttgart : Fachhochschule / Hochschule der Medien
Year
2000
Pages
19 S
Series
Arbeitspapiere Wissensmanagement; 2000/1
Abstract
Wissen wird im modernen Wirtschaftsgeschehen zunehmend als eine wettbewerbsentscheidende Ressource angesehen. Es ist zu einem der wichtigsten Werte für Unternehmen geworden, um im globalen Wettbewerb bestehen zu können. Die Bemühungen der Unternehmen um Generierung und Akquisition von Wissen werden ständig intensiviert. Alle Anstrengungen, Wissen aus externen Quellen in die Unternehmung zu integrieren bzw. selbst neues Wissen zu erzeugen, bleiben allein jedoch wenig sinnvoll. "It's an ongoing quest within an organization (...) to help discover the location, ownership, value and use of knowledge artifacts, to lern the roles and expertise of people, to identify constraints to the flow of knowledge, and to highlight opportunities to leverage existing knowledge." (Grey 1999)
Der wirkungsvolle und erfolgreiche Umgang mit Wissen wird erst durch aufeinander abgestimmte Management-Bausteine erreicht, wie sie heute im Rahmen von Konzeptionen eines Wissensmanagements formuliert werden. Bausteine eines solchen Wissensmanagements sind auf strategischer wie auf operativer Ebene angesiedelt. Auf der strategischen Ebene geht es vor allem um die Formulierung von Wissenszielen der Organisation, basierend auf den als kritisch erkannten Erfolgsfaktoren. Auf der operativen Ebene benennen verschiedene Konzeptionen eines Wissensmanagement heute unterschiedlich differenzierte Bausteine der Realisierung. Generalisiert lassen sich in nahezu allen Konzeptionen jedoch drei Gruppen von Bausteinen identifizieren, die je nach Ansatz weiter differenziert werden können: - Wissensgenerierung und Wissenserwerb - Wissensidentifikation und Wissenstransparenz - Wissensverteilung und Wissensnutzung Wissenstransparenz bzw. die Identifikation von Wissen werden in den gängigen Konzeptionen also als ein zentrales Element der operativen Aufgaben im Wissensmanagement erkannt (vgl. Probst/Romhardt 1996; Probst et al. 1998) Bullinger et al. 1998; Davenport/Prusak 1998). Im Gegensatz zum Datenmanagement und auch zum Informationsmanagement, spielen in diesen Konzepten vor allem auch die individuellen Wissensressourcen der Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter eine entscheidende Rolle. Es ist eine Schlüsselerkenntnis modernen Managements, dass wesentliche Werte der Unternehmung 2in den Köpfen der Mitarbeiter" zu finden sind. Dabei ist Wissen als eine Ressource erkannt, die von Menschen generiert wird, an diese Menschen gebunden ist, auf Erfahrungen und Einstellungen beruht und sich nur in sehr eingeschränktem Masse externalisieren und übertragen lässt (tacit knowledge). In diesem Sinne geht es uns in der Hauptsache um Handlungswissen, um das "gewusst wie". Wie können mühsam erworbene Erfahrungen dokumentiert und transparent gemacht werden, wie kann dafür gesorgt werden, dass sie dem Unternehmen insgesamt und jederzeit zugute kommen können? Wie können erfolgreich durchgefiihrte Aktivitäten und Prozesse als Muster dienen, wenn analoge Aufgaben an anderen Orten und zu anderen Zeiten zu erfüllen sind? Wie gelangen wir vom individuellen Wissen einzelner Mitarbeiter zur Fähigkeit von Organisationen oder Teams, komplexe Probleme und Aufgaben zu lösen? Wenn generiertes, durch Erfahrung gewonnenes oder eingekauftes Wissen dem Unternehmen insgesamt, d.h. den Mitarbeitern die dieses Wissen jeweils benötigen, zugute kommen soll, muss für eine Transparenz über das unternehmensweit vorhandene Wissen gesorgt werden, ebenso über Wissen im Umfeld eines Unternehmens (bspw. bei Partner, Kunden, Behörden usw.). Dabei ist beim Wissensmanagement zunehmend die Tendenz einer räumlich dezentralen - oft sogar globalen - sowie zeitlich flüchtigen und virtuellen Organisation der Unternehmungen zu berücksichtigen (Faisst 1996). Unternehmen suchen nach best practices zur Organisation von Team- und Gruppenprozessen. Unternehmerische Prozesse und unternehmensrelevantes Wissen besitzen heute eine hohe Komplexität, die eine Erfassung, Speicherung und Verteilung des benötigten Wissens selbst ausgeschlossen erscheinen lässt bzw. nur unter Einsatz enormer Ressourcen möglich macht. Die angesprochenen Schwierigkeiten der Externalisierung des jeweils individuellen Erfahrungswissens von Experten stehen diesem Unterfangen ohnehin unüberbrücklich im Wege.

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  4. Schoop, E.: Strukturierung der betrieblichen Dokumentation als Grundbaustein für ein multimediales Wissensmanagement in der Unternehmung (1998) 0.29
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  5. Reinmann-Rothmeier, G.: Wissen Managen : das Münchener Modell (2001) 0.29
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