Document (#26399)

Author
Süle, G.
Title
¬Die Entmaterialisierung von Dokumenten in Rundfunkanstalten
Source
Medien-Informationsmanagement: Archivarische, dokumentarische, betriebswirtschaftliche, rechtliche und Berufsbild-Aspekte. Hrsg.: Marianne Englert u.a
Imprint
Münster : LIT Verlag
Year
2003
Pages
S.47-53
Series
Beiträge zur Mediendokumentation; Bd.6
Abstract
Mit meinem Vortrag möchte ich anknüpfen an einen Vortrag von Hans-Gerhard Stülb, den er auf dem Archivtag 1997 in Ulm gehalten hatte. Die Quintessenz seiner damals vorgetragenen Thesen lautete: Eine Sicherung von Tondokumenten ist dringend nötig. Das Ausgangsmaterial zerfällt und muss deshalb auf neue Tonträger überspielt werden. Die Sicherung ist aber teuer. Alle Magnetbandbestände müssten eigentlich regelmäßig umkopiert werden, so dass im Laufe der Jahre hohe Überspielkosten entstehen, im WDR belaufen sich zur Zeit auf über 4, - DM/Min. Eine Sicherung durch Digitalisierung ist die Lösung, da hierbei ein kostengünstiges und weitgehend verlustfreies Umkopieren möglich ist. Stülb bezeichnete die Tatsache, dass bei der Digitalisierung analoge Tonsignale umgewandelt werden in Bits und Bytes und erst nach einer "datentechnischen Umrechnung" wieder hörbar werden, also nicht mehr unmittelbar greifbar sind, als Entmaterialisierung. 1997 bestand das Digitalisieren im wesentlichen aus dem Überspielen auf CD oder DAT, das Umformatieren von analogen Tonaufzeichnungen in Audiofiles und die Einführung von Langzeitmassenspeichern wurde aber prognostiziert und die digitalen Tonträger nur als ein Zwischenschritt angesehen. Für mich bedeutet heute jedoch "Entmaterialisierung", dass es überhaupt keine Archivmaterialien mehr gibt, was bei der CD oder der DAT immerhin noch der Fall ist, sondern nur noch Datenträger mit Datenfiles, die in einem geschlossenen System, (Audio)Archivspeicher gespeichert und zur Nutzung zur Verfügung gestellt werden. Der Vortrag von Stülb bezog sich ausschließlich auf Tonträger und bei diesen auf die Problematik der "physischen Beschaffenheit". Hier zeichnet sich zwar eine Bestandsgefährdung ab, im Großen und Ganzen ist das Material der Schallarchive aber noch in einem recht guten Zustand. Nun gibt es aber Material in den Rundfunkarchiven, bei dem die Situation noch schwieriger ist als bei den Tonbändern der Schallarchive: Ich meine damit die Bestände der Fernseharchive, bei denen eine Gefährdung des Materials bereits sehr viel konkreter ist. Bei diesen Beständen, es handelt sich um Filme und Videoaufzeichnungen, haben wir wie auch bei den Tonträgerbeständen Probleme mit der physischen Beschaffenheit von Material durch physikalische und chemische Prozesse verschiedenster Art. Darüber hinaus sind die Materialstücke oft nicht unter optimalen Bedingungen sondern quick and dirty produziert, um schnell auf Sendung gehen zu können, und das Trägermaterial wurde nie unter Archiv- sondern unter Produktionsgesichtspunkten ausgesucht. Zu den schlechten Produktionsbedingungen kommen oft noch schlechte Lagerbedingungen und zusätzlich Gefahren für das Material durch seine Nutzung (ein Band wird aus einem klimatisierten Lager in ein auf 50 Grad aufgeheiztes Auto gebracht. Aber der Zerfall ist zur Zeit nicht das größte Problem, u.a. auch, weil die Bestände teilweise noch gar nicht so alt sind, als dass es zu Zerfallserscheinungen kommen kann. Die Hauptproblematik liegt vielmehr in der sog. Obsolescences.
Theme
Dokumentenmanagement
Object
WDR
Area
Medienarchive (Rundfunk/Fernsehen)

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